The methods used by interest groups to influence public policy
Persuasion, Litigation, Rulemaking
– not used until mid-nineteenth century in the USA
To Congress, the most important thing Lobbyists do is provide money for their next
reelection campaign (they also provide volunteers).
Provide information of two important types:
Political – who supports or opposes legislation, including the executive branch
and how strongly they feel about it.
Substantive – the impact of proposed laws, may not be available from any other
Publicity, Mass Media and the Internet
Television, radio, Internet, newspapers, leaflets, signs, direct mail, word of mouth
Organized labor – shop stewards, mail, phone calls and personal contact
1. Organizing rallies, marches, letter-writing drives and other civic
2. Opens new, exclusively online forms of political action, such as mass
emails, posting videos, joining Facebook groups, donating money, commenting
on articles and blogging.
Direct Contact with the Government
Support of Candidates
Contributions to Campaigns
New Political Parties
Please note that men generally tend to vote Republican in recent elections with the exception of
2006 midterm and 2008 presidential elections
Only appreciate that caucus meetings and presidential primaries are the
delegates are actually chosen to go to the National Presidential Convention.
Review how much individuals can contribute in an election: $2000 per election
PAC's can contribute $5000 per election
can only contribute up to
per election (this amount will increase with
inflation). Originally, individuals could only contribute $1000, but Congress raised the individual