M2_6 - Unit 6 How do we control chemical change? The...

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Chemistry XXI The central goal of this unit is to help you identify the structural and environmental factors that can be used to control chemical reactions. Unit 6 How do we control chemical change? M4. Selecting the Reactants M2. Changing the Environment . M3. Analyzing the Products Analyzing the effect of charge stability. Exploring the influence of external factors. Evaluating the impact of electronic and steric effects. M1. Characterizing Interactions Recognizing interactions between reacting molecules.
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Chemistry XXI Unit 6 How do we control chemical change? Module 2: Changing the Environment Central goal: To analyze the effect concentration, temperature, and nature of the solvent on reaction extent.
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Chemistry XXI The Challenge Drugs must travel through different part of our body before reaching their final target. Transformation How do I change it? How can we predict the effect of different environmental conditions on their structure and properties? How can we take advantage of this knowledge to control their behavior?
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Chemistry XXI The extent ( Thermodynamics ) and rate ( Kinetics ) to which a substance, like an drug, reacts with another, like water, depends on the environmental conditions. Reaction Control We can affect and control chemical reactions by changing the concentration of reactants and products, the temperature and pressure of the surroundings, or the nature of the solvent in which the process takes place.
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Chemistry XXI Fast Processes Thus, we will focus our attention on how to control reaction extent in this case. CONCENTRATION TEMPERATURE SOLVENT
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Chemistry XXI Let us consider an acidic drug HA that undergoes this type of reaction when dissolved in water: Concentration Effects For example, phenobarbital , the most widely used anticonvulsant worldwide. ] [ ] ][ [ 3 HA A O H K a - + =
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Chemistry XXI Concentration Effects The actual concentration of each species at ] [ ] ][ [ 3 HA A O H K a - + = Let us now analyze the case in which the initial
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Chemistry XXI Equilibrium Values (Acids) Initial 0 Final x If we assume that ] [ ] ][ [ 3 HA A O H K a - + = ] [ ] ][ [ o a C x x K = 2 / 1 ) ( a o a o K C K C x = =
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Chemistry XXI Let’s Think Phenobarbital ( HA ) has poor solubility in water ~ 1.0 g/L. Estimate the
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M2_6 - Unit 6 How do we control chemical change? The...

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