M3_5s - Unit 5 How do we predict chemical change? The...

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Chemistry XXI Unit 5 How do we predict chemical change? M3. Measuring Rates Analyzing the factors that affect reaction rate. M2. Comparing Free Energies Determining the directionality and extent of a chemical reaction. M1. Analyzing Structure Comparing the relative stability of different substances M4. Understanding Mechanism Identifying the steps that determine reaction rates. The central goal of this unit is to help you identify and apply the different factors that help predict the likelihood of chemical reactions.
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Chemistry XXI Unit 5 How do we predict chemical change? Module 3: Measuring Rates Central goal: To analyze the effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of chemical reactions.
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Chemistry XXI The Challenge Imagine that you were interested in comparing the rates at which different substances appeared or were decomposed on the primitive Earth. How could we evaluate the kinetic stability of a substance? How could we determine the effect of concentration and temperature on reaction rates ? Transformation How do I change it?
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Chemistry XXI Time Issues Consider these two possible routes for the synthesis of glycine , the simplest amino acid, on the primitive Earth:
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Chemistry XXI Thermo vs. Kinetics G Reaction Coordinate Themodynamically favored , but does not occur for all practical purposes Occurs readily at 25 o C Activation Energy
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Chemistry XXI Analyzing chemical systems from both the thermodynamic and kinetic point of view is crucial in making decisions about the actual stability ” of substances. Analyzing Stability For example, the decomposition or transformation of a substance may be favored thermodynamically, but can take millions of years to occur. How stable is it then? C (diamond) C (graphite)
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Chemistry XXI Kinetic Stability The analysis of the kinetic stability of biomolecules has been crucial in the analysis of different theories about the origin of life. How stable are amino acids under such conditions?
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M3_5s - Unit 5 How do we predict chemical change? The...

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