M4_6s - Unit 6 How do we control chemical change? The...

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Chemistry XXI The central goal of this unit is to help you identify the structural and environmental factors that can be used to control chemical reactions. Unit 6 How do we control chemical change? M4. Selecting the Reactants M2. Changing the Environment . M3. Analyzing the Products Analyzing the effect of charge stability. Exploring the influence of external factors. Evaluating the impact of electronic and steric effects. M1. Characterizing Interactions Recognizing interactions between reacting molecules.
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Chemistry XXI Unit 6 How do we control chemical change? Module 4: Selecting the Reactants Central goal: To identify the steric and electronic factors that determine the outcome of chemical processes.
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Chemistry XXI The Challenge Many drugs work by binding to the active site of enzymes and receptors in our body, stimulating or inhibiting their function. Binding occurs through intermolecular forces between the drug molecule and atoms in the target site. Transformation How do I change it? How can we design and synthesize drugs with specific binding capacities?
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Chemistry XXI Binding Forces The forces that bind drugs to active sites or receptors are the same as those that control from phase behavior to the tertiary structure of proteins: ionic , hydrogen bonding , and dispersion interactions . C H 3 C O C O - O O H H 3 N + - Dispersion H-bonding Ion-Ion
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Chemistry XXI Binding Groups In developing drugs, we may be interested in introducing or eliminating different binding groups to enhance the pharmacological activity of a substance Identify the main functional groups with binding capacity and the types of intermolecular forces they may able to establish. Let′s think! NH 2 CH C C H CH C CH O H CH C O NH C H C N O C H S C CH 3 CH 3 C H C O OH Amoxicillin: An antibiotic
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Chemistry XXI Polar Reactions Chemists have developed a wide variety of reactions to introduce or eliminate specific binding groups in molecules. Most of these synthesis reactions result from the interaction between electron-rich sites in a molecule (the nucleophile ) and electron-poor sites in another molecule (the electrophile ). Nucleophile (Negative or with high e- density) δ - δ + Electrophile (Positive or with low e- density) δ - δ +
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Chemistry XXI Substitution Reactions To illustrate some of the central ways of thinking in the synthesis of new substances, let us analyze a class of reactions that allow to “ substitute ” one nucleophile for another in a molecule.
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M4_6s - Unit 6 How do we control chemical change? The...

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