F09_230_L39_post - CHEM 230 F09 L38 Chapter 17: Nuclear...

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CHEM 230 F09 L38 Chapter 17: Nuclear Chemistry Session ID: 230
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Topics Radiation dose Rate of nuclear decay Mass to energy conversion Fission Fusion Homework 10: 5-21 Due Monday 12/14
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Measure Nuclear Decay: Radiation Activity: # disintegrations per time Bq (bacquerel) = 1 disintegration/s Ci (curie) = 3.7x10 10 Bq Typical mCi = 3.7 x10 7 Bq or μ Ci = 3.7 x 10 4 Bq
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Measuring Radiation: Geiger counter Gas: Ar w/ ethanol or Ne w/Br 2 Radiation ionizes gas; current flows briefly: click Not good for detecting γ
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Measuring Radiation Scintillation counter – NaI and ZnS (phosphorescent) produce light when exposed to radiation; convert light into electrical signal to measure Dosimeter – Determine long-term exposure to radiation – LiF (radiation excites F - electron) – Electron falls back into F atom giving off energy as light
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Radiation Dose Gy (gray) energy dose of 1 J/kg 1 rad = 10 -2 J kg -1 1 Gy = 100 rad Q -relative biological effectiveness γ , β Q ~1; α Q ~20 Dose equivalent (Sv) = Q * absorbed dose (Gy) Sv = sievert Rem = Q* absorbed dose (rad) 1 Sv = 100 rem
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Radiation Dose Challenges There are several problems with making sense of the dosing units – Time of exposure: • 1000 rem in an hour is rapidly fatal • 1000 rem over a lifetime has essentially no effect – The "averages": • Men and women are not all identical, nor are all tissues – Type of exposure: • External α -particles (and somewhat β -particles) are stopped by the layer of dead skin cells and are relatively harmless • Those same particles internally can do massive damage to live tissue, which has a much greater medical impact
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F09_230_L39_post - CHEM 230 F09 L38 Chapter 17: Nuclear...

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