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CH369 exam3s03 - Nome Student 1D CHEMISTRY 369 819th 2003...

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Unformatted text preview: Nome Student 1D# CHEMISTRY 369 819th 2003 Dr.- G. Barrie Kitto EXAM 3 NOTE : Multipie Choice Questions are 2 points each Written Answer Questions are 10 points each Multiple Choice : Written Answer Hltll Gmwa—I TOTAL POINTS Multiple Choice 1‘ Which of the following cxercise(s) allo steric control in the reaction of phosphofi-uctokinase? a. ATP b. fructose 2.6-birphosphate c. both a. and b. d. NADH e. none 2. in ghteoneogenesis, the initial reaction converts puruvate to a. oxaloacetate b. acetyl-CoA c. phosphoenolpyruvate d. lactate 3. In the Cori cycle a. lactic acid is transported fi'om the liver to muscle by the blood b. lactic acid is transported fiom the liver to the kidneys by the blood c. glycolysis taltes place in muscle and gluconeogenesis in the liver (1. glycolysis takes place in the liver and gluconeogenesis in muscle 4. The primary fimction ofthe peritose phosphate pathway is a. to synthesize NAB!+ and pentose phosphates b. to synthesize NADPH and pentose phosphates c. to produce NADH d. to convert pentose phosphates to metabolic intermediates for oxidative phowhorylation 5. The only membrane-bound enzyme in the citric acid cycle is a. acortitase be the o—ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex c. malate dehydrogenase d. succinate dehydrogenase 6. The reaction in which malate is oxidized to oxaloacetate is not Wynamically fivored. It takes place because a. it is coupled to ATP hydrolysis b. it involves substrate-level phosphorylation c.1heproductiscontinuoualyusedupinthemnmionofthecychwhichis thermodynamically favored d. it is coupled to a strong reduction 7. Control ofthe citric acid cycle is exercised by each ofthe fiollowing enzymes, except for a. citrate synthase b. ieocitrete dehycrogenase c. aconitase d. the o—ltetoglutamte dehydrogenase complex 8. The complete reduction of one molecule of oxygen gas requires how my electrons? a. one b. two c. four d. eight 9. An important difference between respiratory inhibitors and uncouplers is that a. uncouplers do not inhibit electron transport whereas respiratory inhibitors do b. uncouplers are toxic substances whereas respiratory inhibitors are not c. the effect of respiratory inhibitors cannot be characterized spectroscopically whereas that of uncouplers can d. none of the above it], The processing ofone moieque ofstearic acid {18 carbons) by 3-0an 3. requires 3 cycles of fir-oxidation and produces 9 :nolecules of acetyl—CoA b. requires 8 cycles of B—oxidation and produces 3 molecules of acetyl-CoA c. requires 9 cycles orb-oxidation and produces 8 molecules ofecetyl-COA d. requires 9 cycles offi-oxidation and produces 9 molecules ofacetyl-CoA 1 l. A key intermediate in the catabolism of fatty acids with uneven numbers of carbons is a. malonyl-CoA b. propionyl-COA c. oxaloacetate d. phosphoenolpyruvate 12. If cyclic electron transport takes place a. only Photosystern II is involved, not Photosystem I b. there is a high NADPI—L’NADV ratio in the cell o. no ATP is produced d. oxygen production is increased 13. The production of ATP in photosynthesis a is not linked to a proton gradient across a membrane b. does not involve membrane-bound proteins c. does not require the presence of light d. provides the energy for production of sugars 14. in the first reaction of carbon dioxide fixation in photosynthesis CO1 reacts with a. rihulose 5-phosphate b. ribulose |.5-bisphosphate c. ribose 5-phosphate d. xylulose 5-phosphate 15. After the C02 fixation step in photosynthesis the production of sugars takes place a. as a reversal of glycolysis b. as a reversal of the citric acid cycle c. in the same manner as gluconeogenesis d. as a reversal of the pentose phosphate pathway 16. A second messenger is a. a substance that brings about a desired effect in a cell as a result ofa hormone binding to its receptor on the cell surface b. a horn-tone that acts on a target cell. not one of the releasing factors or trophic hormones that act on specific endocrine glands c. a hormone that affects the DNA of the target cell d. a specialized form of mRNA 1?; Epinephrine triggers an increased rate of glycogen breakdown in muscle by causing: e activation of hexoktnase b. activation ofphosphofi‘uctokinase—l c. activation of glycogen phosphorylase d. the Cori cycle 13. All of the oxidative steps of the citric acid cycle are linked to the reduction of l'slAlilt+ except the reaction catalyzed by: s. isocitrste dehydrogenase b. malate dehydrogenase c. the u—ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex :1. succinste dehydrogenase [9. Free fattyecids in the blood stream are: a. bound to hemoglobin _ b. present at levels that are independent of epinephrine c. curled by the protein serum albumin :1. fieely soluble in the aqueous pluses ofthe blood e. nonexistent: the blood does not contain free fatty acids 20. Transport of fiany acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix requires: a. ATP, coenzyme A, and hexokinase b. ATP, csmitine, and ooenzyme A c. carnitine. ooenzyme A, and hexokinsse d. ATP, carnitine, and pyruvste dehydrogenese e. ATP, ooenzyme A. and pyruvate dehydrogemse Writtm Mm Questions 1. Three of the steps ofthe glycolylic pathway are not used in gheoneogemis fi'om pyruvate to gluwscg‘) What are these steps? (3 points) i) ii} iii) b) How does the glueoneogenic whway get around the above 3 steps? (6 points} i) ii) iii) Indicaxe the input of any high energy compounds in these steps. (1 point) 2. Consider the following partial diagram of the citric acid cycle. (next page) a) Fill in the missing enzymes and structures. (2 points} b) Indicate on the pathway the major oontrol points and at least one inhibitory compound for each step. (3 points) c} Indicate at which steps NADH, FADHg, and ATP (or an equivalent) are produced. (3 points) {I} Indicate at which steps C02 is produced. (2 points} Va Iéog' Fummio ‘FH' "I'coo' Euwl mm: . Succlnyl‘coh 3. :1) Using the activation of glycogen breakdown by epinephrine (adrenalin) as an example, describe howthe presence ofasmallamoum ofa hormone inthe bloodstream leedtc the activalionofa very large number ofmoiecules of glycogen phosphorylase. A: well as describing the pathway of events be sure to specifically address the issue ofthe amplification of the signal. (3 poims) 3. In) In the process you have just described which compound is the “second messenger”? {2 130m) 4. In the utilization of lipids in our diet a) what is the chemical nature of the bulk of the lipids we ingest? (I point} b) in the small intestine the ingested lipids are hydrolyzed by enzymes secreted by the {1 point) c) When fatty acids are transmitted from the cytoplasm into mitochondria they are attached to ________- (I point) Prior to breakdown via the beta oxidation pathway the fatty acids are then attached to . (1 point) d} Diagram the first two steps of the beta oxidation pathway being sure to include any cocnzymea needed. e} At the end ofeach cycle ofthe beta oxidatitm ofsatumted fatty acid: a 2-carbon fi‘agment of the fatty acid is released. In what chemical form is this 2-wbon fi’agntent released (structure not necessary)? (1 Win!) 5. A) By means ofa simple diagram illustrate the “Z" scheme for the light reamions of photosynthesis, indicating on the diagram which parts of the process are related to a} the “splitting" of water In) the production ofNADPH c] the establishment Ufa proton gradient names the thylakoid membrane (3 points) B) What is cyclic photophOSphm-ylation? Dues water splitting occur in this process? {2 Pom) C) The enzyme “RUBISCO” catalyms the first step of the Calvin cycle. What is this reaction? Structures are not messary. (3 points) DJ WherearetheA'IT’sandNADPH’s producedinthelightphase nfphntosymhesismed lathe dark reactions that produce glucose? (2 points) 6. a) In eukaryotic oxidative phosphorylatiOn, why does ATP production require intact internal anti external mitochondrial membranes? (5 points) b) Briefly describe whal "Ilncouplers” do in oxidath‘e phosphnrylmion. Contrast them with inhibitors of electron umpon. (5 points) ...
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