HANDOUT-lewis dot structures

HANDOUT-lewis dot structures - Molecule Valence Needed...

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Drawing Lewis Dot structures (1).Add up valence electrons of all atoms. (For anions add extra electrons equal to the number of negative charges. For cations subtract number of electrons equal to the number of positive charges). This number is A; (2). Add up electrons needed (8 for each atom and 2 for each hydrogen) by all atoms. This number is N; (3). Calculate shared as N-A. This number is S; (4). Calculate unbonded (unshared or lonepair) electrons as A-S. . This number is L; (5). Determine the number of connections (D) between atoms; (6). Distribute shared electrons (S) among D connections; (7). Distribute the unbonded (lone pair) electrons (L) among atoms to give them octets (or doublet for hydrogen).
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Unformatted text preview: Molecule Valence Needed Shared Lone pair Connections Draw Structure or ion electrons electrons electrons electrons A N S=N-A L=A-S D CO 10 16 6 4 1 CO 2 16 24 8 8 2 HCN 10 18 8 2 2 PCl 3 26 32 6 20 3 HCOOH 18 28 10 8 4 CN-10 16 6 4 1 NO 2 + 16 24 8 8 2 NH 4 + 8 16 8 4 SO 4 2-32 40 8 24 4 O 2 2-14 16 2 12 1 Resonance structures SO 2 18 24 6 12 2 O 3 18 24 6 12 2 NO 3-24 32 8 16 3 C 6 H 6 30 60 30 12 Breakdown of Octet rule Odd electron species NO 11 16 5? 6? 1 NO 2 17 24 7? 10? 2 Valence shell expansion (more than an octet) SO 2 18 24 6 12 2 SO 4 2-32 40 8 24 4 PCl 5 40 48 8 32 5 Octet deficient molecules BF 3 24 32 8 16 3 AlCl 3 24 32 8 16 3...
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HANDOUT-lewis dot structures - Molecule Valence Needed...

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