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Chapt-3A - Chapter 3 Chemical Periodicity Chapters 1 and 2...

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Chapter 3: Chemical Periodicity Chapters 1 and 2 dealt with moles, chemical formula, and stoichiometry. Now we need to understand why molecular formulae are written the way they are. Why is it that two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are connected to a carbon atom in formaldehyde (H 2 CO) molecule? C H H = O Why is that elemental hydrogen exists as diatomic H 2 molecule and not as monatomic H, while Helium exists as monatomic He ? Answers to these questions rest in subatomic structure- -namely the electrons present in an atom.
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Classification of elements Based on the similarities among the properties of different elements, the elements are broadly classified into three classes metals metalloids (semi-metals) non-metals luster yes no in-between heat good conductors poor conductors electricity conduct do not conduct physical properties malleable & ductile brittle left of periodic table right of periodic table B,Si,Ge, As,Sb,Te, Po,At
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Periodic Table of the Elements Group** Period 1 IA 1A 18 V IIIA 8A 1 1 H 1.008 2 IIA 2A 13 IIIA 3A 14 IVA 4A 15 VA 5A 16 VIA 6A 17 VIIA 7A 2 He 4.003 2 3 Li 6.941 4 Be 9.012 5 B 10.81 6 C 12.01 7 N 14.01 8 O 16.00 9 F 19.00 10 Ne 20.18 8 9 10 3 11 Na 22.99 12 Mg 24.31 3 IIIB 3B 4 IVB 4B 5 VB 5B 6 VIB 6B 7 VIIB 7B ------- VIII --- ---- ------- 8 ------- 11 IB 1B 12 IIB 2B 13 Al 26.98 14 Si 28.09 15 P 30.97 16 S 32.07 17 Cl 35.45 18 Ar 39.95 4 19 K 39.10 20 Ca 40.08 21 Sc 44.96 22 Ti 47.88 23 V 50.94 24 Cr 52.00 25 Mn 54.94 26 Fe 55.85 27 Co 58.47 28 Ni 58.69 29 Cu 63.55 30 Zn 65.39 31 Ga 69.72 32 Ge 72.59 33 As 74.92 34 Se 78.96 35 Br 79.90 36 Kr 83.80 5 37 Rb 85.47 38 Sr 87.62 39 Y 88.91 40 Zr 91.22 41 Nb 92.91 42 Mo 95.94 43 Tc (98) 44 Ru 101.1 45 Rh 102.9 46 Pd 106.4 47 Ag 107.9 48 Cd 112.4 49 In 114.8 50 Sn 118.7 51 Sb 121.8 52 Te 127.6 53 I 126.9 54 Xe 131.3 6 55 Cs 132.9 56 Ba 137.3 57 La * 138.9 72 Hf 178.5 73 Ta 180.9 74 W 183.9 75 Re 186.2 76 Os 190.2 77 Ir 190.2 78 Pt 195.1 79 Au 197.0 80 Hg 200.5 81 Tl 204.4 82 Pb 207.2 83 Bi 209.0 84 Po (210) 85 At (210) 86 Rn (222) 7 87 Fr (223) 88 Ra (226) 89 Ac ~ (227) 104 Rf (257) 105 Db (260) 106 Sg (263) 107 Bh (262) 108 Hs (265) 109 Mt (266) 110 --- () 111 --- () 112 --- () 114 --- () 116 --- () 118 --- () Lanthanide Series* 58 Ce 140.1 59 Pr 140.9 60 Nd 144.2 61 Pm (147) 62 Sm 150.4 63 Eu 152.0 64 Gd 157.3 65 Tb 158.9 66 Dy 162.5 67 Ho 164.9 68 Er 167.3 69 Tm 168.9 70 Yb 173.0 71 Lu 175.0 Actinide Series~ 90 Th 232.0 91 Pa (231) 92 U (238) 93 Np (237) 94 Pu (242) 95 Am (243) 96 Cm (247) 97 Bk (247) 98 Cf (249) 99 Es (254) 100 Fm (253) 101 Md (256) 102 No (254) 103 Lr (257) Periodic table website: http://periodic.lanl.gov The history and properties of all elements can be found on this website Note different group notations: (a). Groups 1-18 (b). Groups IA-VIIIA; IB-VIIB (c). Groups 1A-8A,1B-7B
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Seven groups of elements I.
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