Chapt-3A - Chapter 3: Chemical Periodicity Chapters 1 and 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3: Chemical Periodicity Chapters 1 and 2 dealt with moles, chemical formula, and stoichiometry. Now we need to understand why molecular formulae are written the way they are. Why is it that two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are connected to a carbon atom in formaldehyde (H 2 CO) molecule? C H H = O Why is that elemental hydrogen exists as diatomic H 2 molecule and not as monatomic H, while Helium exists as monatomic He ? Answers to these questions rest in subatomic structure--namely the electrons present in an atom. Classification of elements Based on the similarities among the properties of different elements, the elements are broadly classified into three classes metals metalloids (semi-metals) non-metals luster yes no in-between heat good conductors poor conductors electricity conduct do not conduct physical properties malleable & ductile brittle left of periodic table right of periodic table B,Si,Ge, As,Sb,Te, Po,At P e r io d ic T a b le o f th e E le m e n ts G ro u p * * P e rio d 1 IA 1 A 1 8 V I I I A 8 A 1 1 H 1 .0 0 8 2 IIA 2 A 1 3 IIIA 3 A 1 4 IV A 4 A 1 5 V A 5 A 1 6 V IA 6 A 1 7 V IIA 7 A 2 H e 4 .0 0 3 2 3 L i 6 .9 4 1 4 B e 9 .0 1 2 5 B 1 0 .8 1 6 C 1 2 .0 1 7 N 1 4 .0 1 8 O 1 6 .0 0 9 F 1 9 .0 0 1 0 N e 2 0 .1 8 8 9 1 0 3 1 1 N a 2 2 .9 9 1 2 M g 2 4 .3 1 3 IIIB 3 B 4 IV B 4 B 5 V B 5 B 6 V IB 6 B 7 V IIB 7 B------- V III ------- ------- 8 ------- 1 1 IB 1 B 1 2 IIB 2 B 1 3 A l 2 6 .9 8 1 4 S i 2 8 .0 9 1 5 P 3 0 .9 7 1 6 S 3 2 .0 7 1 7 C l 3 5 .4 5 1 8 A r 3 9 .9 5 4 1 9 K 3 9 .1 0 2 0 C a 4 0 .0 8 2 1 S c 4 4 .9 6 2 2 T i 4 7 .8 8 2 3 V 5 0 .9 4 2 4 C r 5 2 .0 0 2 5 M n 5 4 .9 4 2 6 F e 5 5 .8 5 2 7 C o 5 8 .4 7 2 8 N i 5 8 .6 9 2 9 C u 6 3 .5 5 3 0 Z n 6 5 .3 9 3 1 G a 6 9 .7 2 3 2 G e 7 2 .5 9 3 3 A s 7 4 .9 2 3 4 S e 7 8 .9 6 3 5 B r 7 9 .9 0 3 6 K r 8 3 .8 0 5 3 7 R b 8 5 .4 7 3 8 S r 8 7 .6 2 3 9 Y 8 8 .9 1 4 0 Z r 9 1 .2 2 4 1 N b 9 2 .9 1 4 2 M o 9 5 .9 4 4 3 T c (9 8 ) 4 4 R u 1 0 1 .1 4 5 R h 1 0 2 .9 4 6 P d 1 0 6 .4 4 7 A g 1 0 7 .9 4 8 C d 1 1 2 .4 4 9 In 1 1 4 .8 5 0 S n 1 1 8 .7 5 1 S b 1 2 1 .8 5 2 T e 1 2 7 .6 5 3 I 1 2 6 .9 5 4 X e 1 3 1 .3 6 5 5 C s 1 3 2 .9 5 6 B a 1 3 7 .3 5 7 L a * 1 3 8 .9 7 2 H f 1 7 8 .5 7 3 T a 1 8 0 .9 7 4 W 1 8 3 .9 7 5 R e 1 8 6 .2 7 6 O s 1 9 0 .2 7 7 Ir 1 9 0 .2 7 8 P t 1 9 5 .1 7 9 A u 1 9 7 .0 8 0 H g 2 0 0 .5 8 1 T l 2 0 4 .4 8 2 P b 2 0 7 .2 8 3 B i 2 0 9 .0 8 4 P o (2 1 0 ) 8 5 A t (2 1 0 ) 8 6 R n (2 2 2 ) 7 8 7 F r (2 2 3 ) 8 8 R a (2 2 6 ) 8 9 A c ~ (2 2 7 ) 1 0 4 R f (2 5 7 ) 1 0 5 D b (2 6 0 ) 1 0 6 S g (2 6 3 ) 1 0 7 B h (2 6 2 ) 1 0 8 H s (2 6 5 ) 1 0 9 M t (2 6 6 ) 1 1 0--- () 1 1 1--- () 1 1 2--- () 1 1 4--- () 1 1 6--- () 1 1 8--- () L a n th a n id e S e rie s * 5 8 C e 1 4 0 .1 5 9 P r 1 4 0 .91 4 0 ....
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2010 for the course CHEM 116 taught by Professor Prolavarapu during the Spring '06 term at Vanderbilt.

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Chapt-3A - Chapter 3: Chemical Periodicity Chapters 1 and 2...

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