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Neurobiology 1 - Coordination and Integration The Nervous...

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Coordination and Integration: The Nervous System We have talked about the role of the nervous and endocrine systems in the control of various functions in the vertebrate body, let's focus on the actual structure and function of the nervous system the functional subunit of the nervous system is a cell called a neuron consists of a nerve cell body plus two extensions of the cell, termed the dendrite and axon the dendrite carries the electrical impulse to the nerve cell body; the axon carries the impulse away from the nerve cell body a group of nerve cell bodies is termed a ganglion , and bundles of dendrites or axons are termed nerves or nerve fibers the length of the dendrites and axons differ between sensory and motor neurons . the simplest reflex consists of a single sensory and single motor neuron; more complicated ones add interneurons like all cells, the neuron maintains an electrical potential (termed the resting potential ) across its plasma membrane--what is nearly unique to the neuron (muscle cells do this also) is its ability to change that potential rapidly, producing what is termed an action potential , which may be transmitted along the neuron and from neuron to neuron The origin of the resting potential (RP) the plasma membrane of the neuron maintains an electrical potential gradient between the cytoplasm and the
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extracellular fluids of about 70 millivolts (mV) , inside cytoplasm negative to outside extracellular fluids in addition to the electrical potential gradient across the plasma
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