10-28-2009- Plant- Exam 2 REVIEW

10-28-2009- Plant- Exam 2 REVIEW - Exam 2 Review...

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Exam 2 Review- Plants (Kitajima) BSC 2011 October 28, 2009 Evolution of Plants · Plants descended from algae and share_______________________, _______________________ as energy storage, _______________________ composed of mainly cellulose, similar __________________________, and similar ____________________________. · Differences between plants and animal cells: Why did plants evolve to grow taller? Monocots vs. Eudicots (two types of angiosperms): Monocots Eudicots Cotyledon Veins Vascular Tissue Roots Pollen Grain Multiples of Floral Organs Plant Anatomy Three Basic Plant Organs: 1
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1. Leaves- Purpose: 2. Stems- Purpose: 3. Roots- Purpose: Two Types: (1) (2) · Three Basic Plant Tissues: 1. Dermal Tissue- Purpose: Example: 2. Ground Tissue- Purpose: Example: 3. Vascular Tissue- Purpose: Example: · Leaf Anatomy: (cross- section of a leaf) 2
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· Stem Anatomy: Stem Tip: Stem “layers”: · Root Anatomy: Root Tip: Cross Section of Eudicot Root: Plant Growth · Primary Growth in Plants: - Growth in _______________________. - Occurs in the ________________________ and ________________________ at points of concentrated undifferentiated meristematic cells called _____________________________. 3
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- In roots, it is protected by the __________________________. - In stems, it is protected by __________________________________. - ___________________________________ can start branches. - After cell division occurs, cell ________________________________, and cell _______________________ must occur. · Secondary Growth in Plants - Growth in ________________________. - In both _________________________ and _________________________. - Vascular Cambium: o Secondary ______________________________ for water transport (more commonly known as ________________) o Secondary ____________________________ for sugar transport (more commonly known as ____________________) o _____________________ for radial transport - Cork Cambium: o Composed of ________________________ o More commonly known as _______________________ o Primary purpose is ___________________________. · Growth Signals - Relies on signal reception and transduction - The plane of ________________________________, controlled by ____________________, affects plant form. - _____________________________________ controlled by the loosening of primary cell walls (because once the secondary cell walls the cells can no longer ______________ or _____________________) - Cell elongation is controlled by ________________________ which restrict cell elongation to a single direction. - The development of specific structures, called _____________________________, is de- termined by positional information. Such as: o Polarity - Plant Transport · Water Potential— - Definition: - Water moves from a ______________ water potential to a _____________ water potential. - Factors that affect water potential: 4
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o Solute Potential - (always ______________); affected by the ___________________ of water molecules. o Pressure Potential - (either positive or negative, however in xylem it is usually ________________________); effects of pressure for water in a restricted volume. o Matrix Potential - (always _______________); affected by the adhesion of water to slightly charged surfaces. o Gravity Potential - (always _______________); only comes into effect for tall trees - Water moves from (high/low) solute concentration to a (high/low) solute concentration - Water move from (higher/lower) solute potential to an area of (higher/lower) solute potential - The roots of a plant will have a (higher/lower) water potential compared to the leaves. - SPAC (soil plant atmosphere continuum) describes the flow of water from ___________________ to ___________________ based on differences in water potential.
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