4.4-5.2 - Predicting formulas Step 1: Assign ox #s...

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Predicting formulas Step 1: Assign ox #s according to rules. -2 +1 Step 3: Simplify if needed Na O Section 4.4 Step 2: Criss-cross. 2 1 The subscript “1” is understood. Na 2 O ( 2 * +1 ) + ( 1 * -2 ) = 0 Predicting formulas Step 1: Assign ox #s according to rules. -2 +3 Step 3: Simplify if needed Al O Section 4.4 Step 2: Criss-cross. 2 3 Al 2 O 3 Ca S -2 +2 2 2 CaS ( 2 * +3 ) + ( 3 * -2 ) = 0 ( 1 * +2 ) + ( 1 * -2 ) = 0 Predict the formula for the compound formed between: Section 4.4 Co and Cl Co is +2 or +3 Cl is 1- (1 * +2 ) + (2 * -1 ) = 0 (1 * +3 ) + (3 * -1 ) = 0 Co Cl -1 +2 Co Cl -1 +3 1 2 1 3 CoCl 2 CoCl 3 Y is in the middle: Section 4.4 For positive oxidation state, focus on how many e-s the element can lose (as many valence e- ’s it has) For negative oxidation state, focus on how many e’s the element can gain (as many empty valance orbitals it has) Z has 2 high energy e-s to lose Z 2+ X has low energy orbitals to fill X 2- 5 valence e’s to lose Y 5+ 3 empty orbitals to fill Y 3- IUPAC naming of monoatomic ions: Sr 2+ N 3- Al 3+ I 1- aluminum ion nitride ion S 0 S 2- sulfur atom sulfide ion Monoatomic anion : change ending to - ide Na 0 Na 1+ sodium atom sodium ion Monoatomic cation : no change strontium ion iodide ion Section 4.2 Cations NH 4 1+ ammonium ion H 3 O 1+ hydronium ion Anions C 2 H 3 O 2 1- acetate ion OH 1- hydroxide ion CO 3 2- carbonate ion NO 3 1- nitrate ion ClO 4 1- perchlorate ion NO 2 1- nitrite ion ClO 3 1- chlorate ion MnO 4 1- permanganate ion ClO 2 1- chlorite ion O 2 2- peroxide ion ClO 1- hypochlorite ion PO 4 3- phosphate ion CrO 4 2- chromate ion SO 4 2- sulfate ion Cr 2 O 7 2- dichromate ion SO 3 2- sulfite ion CN 1- cyanide ion IUPAC Naming of Polyatomic Ions
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4.4-5.2 - Predicting formulas Step 1: Assign ox #s...

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