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PSY 401-01.Spring_07.Exam 2 - Chapter 4 Anatomy of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Anatomy of the Nervous System Nervous System Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous System ¡ 2 Major Subdivisions ¢ CNS: Brain & spinal cord ¢ PNS: Everything else Figure 4.5 Anatomical Terms for Directions ¡ Technical terms to describe a three dimensional structure ¢ Basic terms include ¡ Ventral, dorsal, lateral and medial ¡ Anterior, posterior, superior, inferior ¡ Proximal, Distal, Ipsilateral, Contralateral Figure 4.6 The Spinal Cord The Spinal Cord ¡ Bell-Magendie Law: ¢ Dorsal roots Æ sensory information ¢ Ventral roots Æ motor information ¡ Dorsal root ganglia ¢ Clusters of neurons outside, but near, the spinal cord on the dorsal roots carrying sensory information Figure 4.7 The Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System ¡ Sympathetic ¢ Prepares the body for arousal ¢ Increased breathing, increased heart rate, decreased digestive activity Autonomic Nervous System ¡ Parasympathetic ¢ Facilitates vegetative, nonemergency responses by the body’s organs ¢ Increases digestive activity, activities opposing sympathetic system Brain Structures The Brain ¡ 3 Major Subdivisions ¢ Hindbrain ¢ Midbrain ¢ Forebrain The Hindbrain (rhombencephalon) ¡ Structure Include: ¢ Medulla ¢ Pons ¡ Reticular formation ¡ Raphe system ¢ Cerebellum The Midbrain (mesencephalon) ¡ Tectum ¡ Tegmentum (”covering, carpet”) includes: ¡ Substantia nigra Figure 4.12 The Forebrain (prosencephalon) ¡ Cerebral cortex ¡ Thalamus ¡ Hypothalamus ¡ Pituitary Gland Figure 4.14 The Forebrain ¡ Basal ganglia: ¢ includes caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus ¡ Basal forebrain ¡ Hippocampus Cerebral Spinal Fluid and the Ventricles ¡ Cerebral spinal fluid assists in cushioning the brain ¡ Cerebral spinal fluid is clear fluid similar to blood plasma ¡ Hydrocephalus is blockage of flow of CFS Figure 4.20 Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex ¡ Contains six distinct layers of cells parallel to surface of cortex (laminae I - VI) ¢ A layer may be missing in a region ¡ Organized into columns of cells ¢ arranged perpendicular to the laminae ¢ cells within a given column have similar or related properties Lobes of Cortex ¡ Occipital lobe: posterior end of cortex ¢ contains primary visual cortex ¡ Parietal lobe: between occipital lobe and the central sulcus ¢ contains the primary somatosensory cortex which receives touch sensation, muscle-stretch and joint position information Lobes of Cortex ¡ Temporal lobe: lateral portion of each hemisphere, near the temples ¢ essential for understanding spoken language ¡ Frontal lobe extends from the central sulcus to the anterior limit of the brain ¢ primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus) ¢ prefrontal cortex Chapter Five Development and Plasticity of the Brain Growth and Differentiation of the Brain ¡ CNS begins to form when embryo is two weeks old ¡ At birth, brain weighs 350g ¡ About 9 months after birth the prefrontal cortex is developed only slightly Growth and Development of...
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PSY 401-01.Spring_07.Exam 2 - Chapter 4 Anatomy of the...

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