PSY 401-01.Spring_07.Exam 2

PSY 401-01.Spring_07.Exam 2 - Chapter 4 Anatomy of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Anatomy of the Nervous System Nervous System Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous System 2 Major Subdivisions CNS: Brain & spinal cord PNS: Everything else Figure 4.5 Anatomical Terms for Directions Technical terms to describe a three dimensional structure Basic terms include Ventral, dorsal, lateral and medial Anterior, posterior, superior, inferior Proximal, Distal, Ipsilateral, Contralateral Figure 4.6 The Spinal Cord The Spinal Cord Bell-Magendie Law: Dorsal roots sensory information Ventral roots motor information Dorsal root ganglia Clusters of neurons outside, but near, the spinal cord on the dorsal roots carrying sensory information Figure 4.7 The Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Prepares the body for arousal Increased breathing, increased heart rate, decreased digestive activity Autonomic Nervous System Parasympathetic Facilitates vegetative, nonemergency responses by the bodys organs Increases digestive activity, activities opposing sympathetic system Brain Structures The Brain 3 Major Subdivisions Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain The Hindbrain (rhombencephalon) Structure Include: Medulla Pons Reticular formation Raphe system Cerebellum The Midbrain (mesencephalon) Tectum Tegmentum (covering, carpet) includes: Substantia nigra Figure 4.12 The Forebrain (prosencephalon) Cerebral cortex Thalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland Figure 4.14 The Forebrain Basal ganglia: includes caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus Basal forebrain Hippocampus Cerebral Spinal Fluid and the Ventricles Cerebral spinal fluid assists in cushioning the brain Cerebral spinal fluid is clear fluid similar to blood plasma Hydrocephalus is blockage of flow of CFS Figure 4.20 Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex Contains six distinct layers of cells parallel to surface of cortex (laminae I - VI) A layer may be missing in a region Organized into columns of cells arranged perpendicular to the laminae cells within a given column have similar or related properties Lobes of Cortex Occipital lobe: posterior end of cortex contains primary visual cortex Parietal lobe: between occipital lobe and the central sulcus contains the primary somatosensory cortex which receives touch sensation, muscle-stretch and joint position information Lobes of Cortex Temporal lobe: lateral portion of each hemisphere, near the temples essential for understanding spoken language Frontal lobe extends from the central sulcus to the anterior limit of the brain primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus) prefrontal cortex Chapter Five Development and Plasticity of the Brain Growth and Differentiation of the Brain CNS begins to form when embryo is two weeks old At birth, brain weighs 350g About 9 months after birth the prefrontal cortex is developed only slightly Growth and Development of...
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PSY 401-01.Spring_07.Exam 2 - Chapter 4 Anatomy of the...

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