CHAPTER 1 outline - CHAPTER1 % Prehistory I.

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CHAPTER 1 % Prehistory     I. The Paleolithic Age or Old Stone Age (3 million–10,000 years ago) o The hunting and food gathering of Paleolithic people shaped their  social development o Paleolithic people developed: Spoken language Bone, wood, and stone tools Control of fire Mythic-religious ideas to explain nature, birth, sickness, and death Burial practices Artistic representations of animals on cave walls, sympathetic  magic II. The Neolithic Age began 10,000 years ago in the Near East o Neolithic people developed the following important achievements,  referred to as the Neolithic Revolution: Farming Domestication of animals Villages Polished stone tools Pottery and woven cloth o Agriculture and domestication of animals revolutionized life, as  farmers altered their environment and established permanent  settlements o Changes that came with the Neolithic transition to agriculture include: New food surplus freed people to specialize in certain skills Trade was fostered, sometimes across long distances Awareness of private property emerged Emergence of a ruling elite with wealth and power Daily routine of toil and obedience to ruling elite III. Archaeologists have recently discovered Neolithic villages  established as early as 8000 B.C., including: o Çatal Hüyük (pronounced sha-TAL HOO-yuk) in modern-day Turkey o Jericho in Palestine (c. 2,000 inhabitants in 8000 B.C.) o Jarmö in eastern Iraq IV. Scholars disagree as to when and where the first cities emerged
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o Some claim that the first cities emerged in Sumer c. 3000 B.C. o Others argue that early settlements like Jericho were the first urban  centers because of large populations, trade activities, and public  works V. Neolithic technological advances included: Shaping and baking clay for pottery containers, potter’s wheel Grinding stone tools on rock Wheel and sail Plow and ox yoke Use of copper for tools and weapons Combining copper and tin to make bronze The Rise to Civilization I. Civilization arose 5,000 years ago in the Near East (Mesopotamia  and Egypt) II. The emergence of civilization was characterized by the  emergence of: III. Cities that were larger, more populous, and more complex  than Neolithic villages IV. Invention of writing (records and laws) V. Monumental architecture VI. Organized and complex religious life, with powerful priesthood VII. Religion was the central force in these primary civilizations VIII. Explained workings of nature IX. Eased fear of death X. Justified rules and morality XI. Sanctified law as a commandment of the gods XII. United people in common enterprises such as irrigation and 
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CHAPTER 1 outline - CHAPTER1 % Prehistory I.

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