Unformatted text preview: Introduction – History of Psychology and Explaining Abnormality Abnormality Abnormal Behavior Explaining Abnormality: From Superstition Explaining to Science to Abnormal Behavior Abnormal To Read Pages 498-501 Pages 1) Normality – What is Normal? -Core Features of Disordered Behavior 2) Classifying Mental Disorders-Problems 2) by the book by Note: If you try the exercise on p.499 Note: Crazy for a Day – That would be a great classroom discussion classroom Abnormal Behavior Abnormal Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Diagnostic Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) – Classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe abnormal behaviors; The IV-TR indicates it is the text revision (TR) of the fourth major revision (IV). fourth Explaining Abnormality: From Superstition to Science Superstition
Views and Treatments Ancient Ancient Greek and Roman Greek Europe in the Middle Ages The Renaissance Nineteenth Century Early Twentieth Century Current Times Ancient Views and Treatments Ancient P.542-544 During the Stone Age, people believed that During abnormal behavior resulted from demonic possession possession Trephining – recommended “therapy” was to Trephining bore a hole in the skull to allow the evil spirit to escape escape Exorcism- people treated with prayer, fasting, Exorcismnoise-making, beating, and drinking terriblenoise-making, tasting brews Greek and Roman Views and Treatment Treatment Roughly 500 B.C. to A.D. 500 – flourishing Roughly Greek and Roman civilizations Aristotle, Plato, Hippocrates focused on internal Aristotle, causes for abnormal behavior causes Hippocrates – believed that illnesses had natural Hippocrates causes causes Brain pathology resulted from an imbalance of 4 Brain humors (fluids) that flowed through the body: yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm yellow Greek and Roman Views and Treatment Treatment Examples of Hippocrates ideas An excess of yellow bile caused mania (a state An of euphoria and frenzied activity) of An excess of black bile caused melancholia (a An condition marked by unshakable sadness) condition Treatment – melancholia could be reduced by a Treatment quiet life, a vegetable diet, temperance, exercise, celibacy, and even bleeding exercise, Europe in the Middle Ages: Demonology Returns Demonology From about A.D. 500 to 1350, the power From of the clergy increased throughout Europe. There was a rejection of scientific forms of There investigation. investigation. Deviant behavior, particularly Deviant psychological dysfunction, was seen as evidence of Satan’s influence. evidence It was a time of great stress and anxiety, It of war, and of urban uprising and plagues of Europe in the Middle Ages: Demonology Returns Demonology Demonology – In medieval Europe, the study of Demonology demons and the treatment of persons “possessed” by demons (p. 543) “possessed” Exorcisms re-emerge Witchcraft - During the fifteenth century, many Witchcraft believed that an individual not only could be possessed, but also could choose to consort with the Devil. These “willing people” (usually women who somehow offended the social rules for feminine behavior) were called witches, and many were tortured, imprisoned for life, or executed. Europe in the Middle Ages: Demonology Returns Demonology “Dunking tests” – tests for suspected Dunking witches in which they were restrained and dunked in deep water – “Catch 22” – If the alleged witch sank and drowned, she was declared innocent. However, if she somehow managed to float to the top, she was obviously “impure” and would be handed over to the law for execution handed The Renaissance and the Rise of Asylums Asylums About 1400-1700, a period of flourishing cultural About and scientific activity and Asylums – special mental hospitals initially Asylums designed to provide quiet retreats from the world and to “protect” society and These institutions were founded with every These intention of providing good care. Once the asylums started to overflow, however, they became virtual prisons where patients were held in filthy conditions and treated with unspeakable cruelty. (even tourist attractions) cruelty. The Nineteenth Century: Reform and Moral Treatment and Some info and pictures on p. 544 Philippe Pinel – French physician, put in charge Philippe of a Parisian asylum where the inmates were shackled to the walls of unlighted and unheated cells. He removed inmates from these dungeons and insisted they be treated humanely. His idea was that disturbed individuals had an underlying physical illness. Pinel’s medical model medical eventually gave rise to the modern specialty of psychiatry, in which disorders are diagnosed as physical illnesses and treatments are prescribed. prescribed. The Nineteenth Century: Reform and Moral Treatment and Pinel’s patients – Patients who had been shut Pinel’s away for decades were now enjoying fresh air and sunlight and being treated with dignity. Many improved greatly over a short period of time and were released. time Moral Treatment (emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful techniques) spread throughout Europe and the United States throughout The Nineteenth Century: Reform and Moral Treatment and Benjamin Rush (Pennsylvania Hospital Benjamin Physician) – developed humane approaches to treatment – staff should work closely with patients, reading and talking to them and taking them on walks them Dorothea Dix (Boston Schoolteacher) – made Dorothea humane care a public and political concern in the United States – fought for new laws and funding – helped establish 32 state hospitals intended to offer moral treatment intended The Nineteenth Century: Reform and Moral Treatment and The moral treatment movement began to decline toward The the end of the nineteenth century. the Reasons? The speed which the moral movement had spread, the The assumption that all patients could be cured if treated with humanity and dignity, new wave of prejudice against people with mental disorders (public came to view them as strange and dangerous), many patients entering hospitals were impoverished foreign immigrants, funding declined declined Long-term hospitalization became the rule once again The Early Twentieth Century: The Somatogenic and Psychogenic Perspectives Perspectives Somatogenic perspective – the view that Somatogenic abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes physical Psychogenic Perspective – the view that Psychogenic the main causes of abnormal functioning are psychological are The Somatogenic Perspective The A re-emergence of Hippocrates’ view which re-emergence gained wide acceptance gained Emil Kraepelin – argued that physical factors, Emil such as fatigue, are responsible for mental dysfunction. He constructed the first modern system for classifying abnormal behavior identifying various syndromes (clusters of symptoms), listing their physical causes, discussing their expected course, and even measuring the effects of various drugs on abnormal behavior. abnormal The Somatogenic Perspective The Despite the general optimism, biological Despite approaches yielded largely disappointing results throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Physicians tried tooth extraction, Physicians tonsillectomy, hydrotherapy (alternating hot and cold baths), and lobotomy. The Psychogenic Perspective The Hypnotism demonstrated its potential in patients Hypnotism suffering from hysterical disorders (mysterious bodily ailments that had no apparent physical basis). Physicians could make normal people experience Physicians deafness, paralysis, blindness, or numbness by means of hypnotic suggestion. They established that hypnotic suggestion could both They cause and cure even a physical dysfunction cause The Psychogenic Perspective The
Josef Breuer – discovered that his Josef patients sometimes awoke free of hysterical symptoms after speaking candidly under hypnosis about past upsetting events. Breuer’s work was joined by Freud’s work Breuer’s which eventually led Freud to develop the theory of psychoanalysis theory Current Times Current In the 1950s researchers discovered a In number of new psychotropic medications (drugs that primarily affect the brain and alleviate many symptoms of mental dysfunction). dysfunction). When given these drugs, many patients When who had spent years in mental hospitals began to show signs of improvement. began Current Times Current There were promising results with these There medications and a growing public outcry over the terrible conditions in public mental hospitals the This lead to Deinstitutionalization or the This releasing of hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals. (1955 about 600,000 people in mental institutions versus 60,000 today). Current Times Current p. 573 Deinstitutionalitzation – reduced use of Deinstitutionalitzation full-time commitment to mental institutions to treat mental disorders to Community mental health center – a Community facility offering a wide range of mental health services, such as prevention, counseling, consultation, and crisis intervention intervention Current Times Current Today when severely impaired people do need Today institutionalization, they are usually given shortinstitutionalization, term hospitalization, then ideally given outpatient term psychotherapy and medication in outpatient community programs. community Community mental health approach – has been Community helpful, but too few community programs are available. Many people shuffle back an forth between the mental hospital and the community. between Current Times Current Only about 40% of people with severe mental illness currently receive any kind of treatment. treatment. At least 100,000 people living with severe At mental illness are homeless, and another 135,000 mentally ill people are incarcerated. ...
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