Exam II Review sheet

Exam II Review sheet - Exam II Review Sheet 1. Test blood...

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Exam II Review Sheet 1. Test blood for IFG hormone levels. Non-functioning IGF or GH receptors 2. Endocrine over neuron- hormones from the endocrine system (blood) influence the hypothalamus. 3. Metastasis: -Release of cells from primary tumor -Dissemination of cells via lymphatic, blood vessels, or body cavities - Arrest of cells, usually in small blood vessels -Extravasation. penetration of cells through vessel walls and into the surrounding tissues. -Survival and growth of cells at the secondary site Inefficient Process because… - The circulation is a very hostile environment for tumor cells because o Mechanical stress imposed by circulation (tumbled and ripped apart) o Poor nutrition (blood has a diff mix of nutrients) o Toxicity due to high oxygen concentrations (used to living in low oxygen) o Attack by the immune system, like T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural-killer cells. (protective barrier protected them before) 4. * On separate sheet * 5. Anterior: -hormonal pathway -secretes (creates and releases) hormones -GH, FSH, LH, ACTH, PRL Posterior: -neural pathway -releases but doesn’t synthesize -ADH, Oxytocin ***6. A benign cancer remains restricted in its primary site of origin. A malignant cancer has escaped the fibrous envelope and invaded surrounding tissues. 7. Rigor mortis is stiffening of the body a few hours after death. Muscles contract because deteriorating SR releases Ca++. A dead body does not produce ATP, so Ca++ cant go back inside the SR. Therefore, muscles cannot relax. 8. People would die because their bodies need Ca++ because the following would not happen:
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-influx of Ca++ that causes neurotransmitter release -influx of Ca++ from the SR that provides stimulus to muscle fibers -conformational change of the troponin complex from the myosin binding site on the actin (so myosin cross bridge binding can occur) -glycogen breakdown and ATP synthesis (Ca++ activates calmodulin to breakdown glycogen into glucose. Muscles make glucose into ATP) 9. Harry the ostrich lost. Harry uses anaerobic metabolism via glycolysis. Jenny uses aerobic respiration via oxidative phosphorylation, so she can continue to produce ATP. 10. Similarities:
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2010 for the course BIO 42202 taught by Professor Sanders during the Spring '10 term at Carnegie Mellon.

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Exam II Review sheet - Exam II Review Sheet 1. Test blood...

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