Exam III Review sheet

Exam III Review sheet - Exam III Review Need: 9, 17, , 1)...

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Exam III Review Need: 9, 17, , 1) Properties: cardiac output = HR x SV *Resistance—vasoconstriction, vasodilation *Smooth Muscles—control constriction *Mean arteriol pressure = cardiac output x resistance *Change HR, T P R, or SV. You will have an impact on blood flow. R = 1/r^4 (R- radius, r-resistance) *Blood flow= pressure gradient/resistance 2) -- 3) -- 4) First exposure: B-lymphocytes exposed to antigen and divide into B-lymphoblasts and memory B-cells. B-lymphoblasts produce antibodies to fight antigen. Memory B cells remain in lymph nodes for future exposure. Second exposure: Antigen is recognized by memory B-cells and produce B- lymphoblasts and more memory B-cells. B-lymphoblasts produce antibodies faster and more of them. Second response is enhanced because response is faster and more intense. 5) Yes, first time exposure primary response is for antigen to bind to a receptor and B- lymphocyte, which proliferates to form a clone. Clone proliferates to antibody creating plasma cells and also memory cells. 3-5 days for a primary response (first time exposure to a specific bacteria). In the tenth day, body starts making antibodies. If this was a second exposure, the response to antigen is faster and longer (prolonged) and more effective. Immune system was already primed for antigen. Minimal or no symptoms
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6) Inflammation sequence: 1 Resident tissue macrophages defend 2 Localized vasodilation 3 Increased capillary permeability 4 Localized edema 5 Walling off to inflamed area 6 Emigration of leukocytes 7 Leukocyte proliferation 8 Leukocytic destruction of bacteria 9 Mediation of the inflamed response by phagocyte—secreted chemicals 10 Tissue repair Tylenol reduces this 2, 3, 4. (it is an anti-inflammatory) 7) The delay allows for SA signaled contraction of the atrias, permitting maximal filling of their corresponding ventricles prior to AV signaled contraction of ventricles 8) bad: low density lipoproteins—less protein, more cholesterol. Transport chol to the cells
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Exam III Review sheet - Exam III Review Need: 9, 17, , 1)...

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