New Course Material:
1. Define and briefly discuss the three functions of the nephron.
In your answer include the
following: at what part of the nephron does each primarily
occur; why is a particular function important;
and provide examples of substances involved in each function.
—based on size) and control initial components of tubular filtrate (ex. Na, glucose,
regulate blood volume, pH, composition of blood
– conserve H20 and nutrients (
Loop of henle
– remove toxins and nitrogenous wastes
Occurs at: Prox/distal tubules
2. Your blood pressure is rapidly increasing due to eating a huge bag of very salty potato chips and
drinking several glasses of caffeine-free coca-cola.
The increased blood pressure stretches your heart’s
atria and the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) results.
By what mechanisms does ANP help
normalize blood pressure?
Targets baroreceptors that cause posterior pituitary to decrease ADH release which inhibits
collecting ducts of kidney (lower Na+ and water reabsorption
lower blood volume)
JG apparatus effects decrease rennin release which results in vasodilation
Adrenal cortex effects decrease aldosterone release also inhibiting the collecting ducts of kidney leading
to decreased Na+ and H20 reabsorption
decrease blood volume
All act to decrease BP
(7 pts) 3. Select from the following list seven
terms and define them: brush border, peritubular capillaries,
minor calyx, net filtration pressure equation, gastric ulcer, gastrin, bile salts, gall stones, Kupffer cells,
chylomicrons, macula densa, and medullary (renal) pyramid, bile, cirrhosis, hepatitis,
chymotrypsinogen/chymotrypsin, glomerular filtration membrane, metabolism, alimentary canal,
peristalsis/segmentation, mucosa, chief cells, paretal
cells, goblet cells, intrinsic/extrinsic.
lines the surface of microvilli in small intestines and is the site of various enzymes and absorption
the capillary complex surrounding the nephronic tubules
the first collection site of the calyx which drains into the ureter of the kidney
net filtration pressure equation-
NFP= HPg-(OPg + HPc) (text to explain this is also fine)
erosions in stomach wall most being caused by bacteria
a hormone from stomach that promotes acid secretion
produced by liver these salts are responsible for lipid/fat emulsification to add digestion
produced when insufficient bile results in deposition of cholesterol “stones” in the gall bladder
the emulsified particles of fat and bile salts
groups of specialized cells of the distal tubule which monitor tubular pressure and osmolarity
medullary (renal) pyramid-
the arrangement of groups of nephrons into pyramid like structures
contains bile salts and stored and released by gall bladder