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Final Exam Review Sheet--complete

Final Exam Review Sheet--complete - New Course Material(6...

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New Course Material: (6 pts) 1. Define and briefly discuss the three functions of the nephron. In your answer include the following: at what part of the nephron does each primarily occur; why is a particular function important; and provide examples of substances involved in each function. Filtration —filter ( nonspecific —based on size) and control initial components of tubular filtrate (ex. Na, glucose, amino acids) regulate blood volume, pH, composition of blood Occurs: glomerulus Reabsorption – conserve H20 and nutrients ( specific ) Occurs at: Prox/distal tubules Loop of henle Collecting duct Secretion – remove toxins and nitrogenous wastes Occurs at: Prox/distal tubules (4 pts) 2. Your blood pressure is rapidly increasing due to eating a huge bag of very salty potato chips and drinking several glasses of caffeine-free coca-cola. The increased blood pressure stretches your heart’s atria and the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) results. By what mechanisms does ANP help normalize blood pressure? ANP Targets baroreceptors that cause posterior pituitary to decrease ADH release which inhibits collecting ducts of kidney (lower Na+ and water reabsorption lower blood volume) - JG apparatus effects decrease rennin release which results in vasodilation - Adrenal cortex effects decrease aldosterone release also inhibiting the collecting ducts of kidney leading to decreased Na+ and H20 reabsorption decrease blood volume All act to decrease BP (7 pts) 3. Select from the following list seven terms and define them: brush border, peritubular capillaries, minor calyx, net filtration pressure equation, gastric ulcer, gastrin, bile salts, gall stones, Kupffer cells, chylomicrons, macula densa, and medullary (renal) pyramid, bile, cirrhosis, hepatitis, chymotrypsinogen/chymotrypsin, glomerular filtration membrane, metabolism, alimentary canal, peristalsis/segmentation, mucosa, chief cells, paretal cells, goblet cells, intrinsic/extrinsic. brush border- lines the surface of microvilli in small intestines and is the site of various enzymes and absorption of nutrients peritubular capillaries- the capillary complex surrounding the nephronic tubules minor calyx- the first collection site of the calyx which drains into the ureter of the kidney net filtration pressure equation- NFP= HPg-(OPg + HPc) (text to explain this is also fine) gastric ulcer- erosions in stomach wall most being caused by bacteria gastrin- a hormone from stomach that promotes acid secretion bile salts- produced by liver these salts are responsible for lipid/fat emulsification to add digestion gall stones- produced when insufficient bile results in deposition of cholesterol “stones” in the gall bladder Kupffer cells- hepatic macrophages chylomicrons- the emulsified particles of fat and bile salts macula densa- groups of specialized cells of the distal tubule which monitor tubular pressure and osmolarity medullary (renal) pyramid- the arrangement of groups of nephrons into pyramid like structures bile- contains bile salts and stored and released by gall bladder
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