Chapter 16: Conclusions (Conceptual Framework Revisited)
THEME 1: NATURE AND NURTURE. All interactions, all the time.
Before birth, nature and nurture interact.
Proof: teratogens, fetal learning (taste mother’s diet, prefer mothers voice in
the world bc they heard it in the womb)
Baby’s nature elicits nurture
their emotional expressions, cuteness, attention to things
Timing of exposure to teratogens, sensitive periods to perceptual, auditory,
grammatical, etc. Also, social, emotional, intellectual development.
Nature doesn’t reveal itself all at once
Ex: puberty, nearsightedness, children born with certain type of brain
damage (IQ is normal at first, then falls later), schizophrenia (inherited gene,
but develops later)
Everything influences everything
Ex: self esteem influenced by genes (codes for attractiveness, athletic talent,
etc) and family, society, etc.
Self initiated activity—physically interact with the environment
Active fetuses (move, breath movements for lungs), preferential looking,
walking, talking, social activity/antisocial, friends
Active interpretation of experience—kids try to understand their world
Become surprised when impossible things happen, interpretation of their
Self regulation—regulate their behavior
Regulate emotions (turn away from scary things, talk about it)
Eliciting reactions from other people
III. THEME 3: DEVELOPMENT IS BOTH CONTINUOUS AND DISCONTINUOUS
Continuity/discontinuity of individual differences—do better kids continue to be
IQ, social/personality characteristics(shyness, aggressiveness)
intellect more continuous than other characteristics
Stability of environment influences stability of individual differences (so,