digestion-readingnotes - BIOL 326 General Physiology Animal...

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1 BIOL 326 - General Physiology Animal Physiology Lecture Notes : Energy Regulation and the Stress of Hypo- and Hyperglycemia . March 10th-12th, 2010 Dr. M. Sweeney-Nixon Objectives: You will be able to describe 1. how food is digested, including the role of the nervous system. 2. the role of the endocrine system in energy balance/metabolism. All living organisms need ‘ energy ’ to live and do biological work: to generate heat , movement of body or its parts during exertion (mechanical work of exercise, hunting etc, various behaviors), reproduction, ventilation, synthesis (fat, glycogen, proteins for growth and maintenance of body parts), cellular work (muscle contraction, osmoregulation and pH balance) etc (see figure below). ATP is the universal energy currency recognized by all cells. ATP production occurs by glycolysis and aerobic respiration of acetyl CoA (mostly from glucose and fatty acids) in mitochondria, which 22 need O . Animals acquire O from their environment (discussed in pulmonary lectures). Thus, energy output occurs in the form of glucose and fatty acids being oxidized into ATP: Glucose/fatty acids + O 6 ATP + CO . Where do animals get glucose and fatty acids ? How is this regulated ? Energy input to the blood/tissues must equal demand (output from the blood/tissues)- this is basic law of thermodynamics and is called mass balance . Energy input occurs by: 1) Feeding on a diet . This behavior is driven by the animal’s drives e.g. hunger/ appetite (or more complex drives in humans).
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digestion-readingnotes - BIOL 326 General Physiology Animal...

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