notes-cardiopulmonary - BIOL 326 General Physiology Animal...

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1 BIOL 326 - General Physiology Animal Physiology Lecture Notes : Cardiopulmonary systems and the stress of hypotension & hypoxia .. February 17-March 3 , 2010 Dr M. Sweeney-Nixon rd Objectives: At the end of this section, you will be able to 1. List the difference between closed and open circulatory systems and between fish, amphibian & mammalian circulatory systems. 2. State the composition of hemolymph and blood. 3. Describe for mammalian systems how the heart beats and regulation of blood pressure. 4. Describe how oxygen enters lungs by mammalian pulmonary systems and is transported to tissues. 5. Describe how carbon dioxide from tissues and exhaled from lungs by the mammalian pulmonary system. 6. Describe regulation of ventilation and blood gases to control acidosis, hypercapnia and hypoxia in mammals. 2 All animals use O during aerobic respiration of organic molecules (mostly glucose and fatty 2 acids) in mitochondria of various tissues. They thus must acquire O from their environment 2 and these organic molecules in diets. They also produce CO as a product of respiration. Large animals need an adequate rate of transport of organic (and inorganic) nutrients, gases 22 (CO , O ), hormones, antibodies, fluid and metabolic waste (ammonia, urea) as DIFFUSION will not meet these needs; so they have evolved circulatory systems to transport blood or hemolymph . They also have evolved gas exchange systems (next section) . Circulatory systems move O to and CO from respiring tissues: these can be open or closed systems. A summary of these systems is in the table below. open circulatory systems closed circulatory systems transport extracellular fluid mixed with blood ( hemolymph ) through vessels and sinuses (arteries enter in to a fluid cavity between the endo- and ectoderm, the hemocoel) transport blood in blood vessels lined with endothelial cells; continuous circuit from the heart to arteries, aterioles, capillaries, and then venules, veins and back to the heart flow occurs by the heart pumping and especially their body movements flow occurs predominantly by the heart pumping, and in veins by body movements large volumes of fluid (30% of body weight) small volumes (10% of body weight) low pressures (< 50mmHg) highly pressurized (100-200mmHg) most invertebrates have these systems: all arthropods, some molluscs chordates; annelid worms, cephalopods
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2 Hemolymph composition is species-specific. It is a combination of blood mixed with interstitial fluid (i.e. the extracellular fluid bathing cells/tissues). 10% cells (hemocytes) that are mainly for defence of the body: plasmatocytes phagocytose foreign cells; lamellocytes respond to parasitic infections; crystal cells contain enzymes to lyse foreign cells. It is 90% fluid consisting of water and dissolved substances: 4 inorganic salts, mostly Na and Cl , with lesser amounts of Mg , K , Ca SO , + - 2+ + 2+, 2- usually at the same levels as interstitial fluid (see table below for salt water vs fresh water or terrestrial invertebrates; vertebrate values on p 3 [Table 14.1]) organic nutrients for energy: carbohydrates and lipids.
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notes-cardiopulmonary - BIOL 326 General Physiology Animal...

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