CH12_withFigures - Chapter 12 ARTIFICAL INTELLIGENCE AND...

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Chapter 12 ARTIFICAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEMS
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Learning Objectives Understand the concept and evolution of artificial intelligence Understand the importance of knowledge in decision support Describe the concept and evolution of rule- based expert systems (ES)
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Learning Objectives Understand the architecture of rule-based ES Explain the benefits and limitations of rule- based systems for decision support Identify proper applications of ES Learn about tools and technologies for developing rule-based DSS
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Concepts and Definitions of Artificial Intelligence Knowledge-based systems (KBS ) Technologies that use qualitative knowledge rather than mathematical models to provide the needed supports
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Concepts and Definitions of Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) definitions Artificial intelligence (AI) The subfield of computer science concerned with symbolic reasoning and problem solving Turing test A test designed to measure the “intelligence” of a computer
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Concepts and Definitions of Artificial Intelligence Characteristics of artificial intelligence Symbolic processing Numeric versus symbolic Algorithmic versus heuristic Heuristics Informal, judgmental knowledge of an application area that constitutes the “rules of good judgment” in the field. Heuristics also encompasses the knowledge of how to solve problems efficiently and effectively, how to plan steps in solving a complex problem, how to improve performance, and so forth
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Concepts and Definitions of Artificial Intelligence Characteristics of artificial intelligence Inferencing Reasoning capabilities that can build higher-level knowledge from existing heuristics Machine learning Learning capabilities that allow systems to adjust their behavior and react to changes in the outside environment
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The Artificial Intelligence Field Evolution of artificial intelligence Naïve solutions stage General methods stage Domain knowledge stage Expert system or a knowledge-based system Multiple integration stage Embedded applications stage
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The Artificial Intelligence Field
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The Artificial Intelligence Field
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The Artificial Intelligence Field Applications of artificial intelligence Expert system (ES) A computer system that applies reasoning methodologies to knowledge in a specific domain to render advice or recommendations, much like a human expert. A computer system that achieves a high level of performance in task areas that, for human beings, require years of special education and training
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The Artificial Intelligence Field Applications of artificial intelligence Natural language processing (NLP) Using a natural language processor to interface with a computer-based system Two subfields of NLP Natural language understanding Natural language generation Speech (voice) understanding Translation of the human voice into individual words and sentences understandable by a computer
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