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CH18_withFigures - Chapter 18 KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION...

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Chapter 18 KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION, REPRESENTATION , AND REASONING
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Learning Objectives Understand the nature of knowledge Understand the knowledge-engineering process Learn different approaches to knowledge acquisition Explain the pros and cons of different knowledge acquisition approaches Illustrate methods for knowledge verification and validation Understand inference strategies in rule-based intelligent systems Explain uncertainties and uncertainty processing in expert systems (ES)
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Concepts of Knowledge Engineering Knowledge engineering The engineering discipline in which knowledge is integrated into computer systems to solve complex problems that normally require a high level of human expertise
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Concepts of Knowledge Engineering The knowledge-engineering process 1. Knowledge acquisition 2. Knowledge representation 3. Knowledge validation 4. Inferencing 5. Explanation and justification
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Concepts of Knowledge Engineering Knowledge representation A formalism for representing facts and rules in a computer about a subject or specialty Knowledge validation (verification) The process of testing to determine whether the knowledge in an artificial intelligence system is correct and whether the system performs with an acceptable level of accuracy
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Concepts of Knowledge Engineering
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Concepts of Knowledge Engineering CommonKADS The leading methodology to support structured knowledge engineering. It enables the recognition of opportunities and bottlenecks in how organizations develop, distribute, and apply their knowledge resources, and it is a tool for corporate knowledge management. CommonKADS provides the methods to perform a detailed analysis of knowledge intensive tasks and processes and supports the development of knowledge systems that support selected parts of the business process
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The Scope and Types of Knowledge Documented knowledge For ES, stored knowledge sources not based directly on human expertise Undocumented knowledge Knowledge that comes from sources that are not documented, such as human experts
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The Scope and Types of Knowledge Knowledge acquisition from databases Many ES are constructed from knowledge extracted in whole or in part from databases Knowledge acquisition via the Internet The acquisition, availability, and management of knowledge via the Internet are becoming critical success issues for the construction and maintenance of knowledge- based systems
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The Scope and Types of Knowledge Levels of knowledge Shallow knowledge A representation of only surface level information that can be used to deal with very specific situations Deep knowledge A representation of information about the internal and causal structure of a system that considers the interactions among the system’s components
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The Scope and Types of Knowledge
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The Scope and Types of Knowledge Major categories of knowledge Declarative knowledge A representation of facts and assertions
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