Geography Chapter 1 Percy Notes
January 20, 2010
Geography: the science that studies the relationships among natural systems,
geographic areas, society, cultural activities, and the interdependence of all of these
Spatial: Refers to the nature and character of physical space, its measurement, and the
distribution of things within it.
Physical Geography: Spatial analysis of all the physical elements and processes that
make up the environment: energy, air, water, weather, climate, landforms, soils,
animals, plants, microorganisms, and Earth itself.
Scientific Method: a methodology important to physical geography.
Process: A set of actions or mechanisms that operate in some special order, governed
by physical, chemical, and biological laws, is central to geographic analysis.
Five important spatial themes: location, region, human-Earth relationships, movement
Location: Absolute and relative location on Earth.
. Location answers the question of
Region: Areas having uniform characteristics; how they form and change; their relation
to other regions.
Human-Earth Relationships: Humans and the environment: resource exploitation,
hazard perception, and environmental pollution and modification.
Movement: Communication, movement, circulation, migration, and diffusion across
Earth's surface. Global interdependence links all regions and places.
Place: Tangible and intangible living and nonliving characteristics that make each place
unique. No two places on Earth are exactly alike.
System: any ordered, interrelated set of things and their attributes, linked by flows of
energy and matter, as distinct from the surrounding environment outside the system.
- comprised of sub-systems
- both matter and energy are stored and retrieved and energy is transformed from one
type to another