Hisotry_173_fall_2015.docx - History 173T Fall 2015 The Old World Attitudes of Development Defining environmento Circumstances objects or conditions by

Hisotry_173_fall_2015.docx - History 173T Fall 2015 The Old...

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History 173T Fall 2015The Old World Attitudes of Development 9/28/15Defining environment- oCircumstances, objects or conditions by which one is surroundedoEx: our environment is this roomoThe complex physical, chemical and biotic factors that act on an organism and its ecological community; encompass everything- climate, soil Ecology- the totality of relations between an organism and its environment Western civilization views- two of the most advanced western civilizations within the Fertile CrescentoFirst herding/ domestication of big animals- sheep, goats, pigs, cattle and eventually horses -> herding society which eventually gave way to an agricultural society oBegan ~9,000 years ago oIdeas which exist today began such as : manipulating the world for your environmental advantageoCreated walled cities- separating themselves from the wilderness and creating civilization Eurasian advantages- 1:wild animals existed in herds, 2: good grasses, peas and lentils which didn’t exist inother places of the world oAgriculture -> systems of exchange, technology oWritten language earlier than anywhere else in the world; bronze, iron, guns, swords and ships English North AmericaoColumbus 1492: looking for the passage to Asia but ran into North America; made four voyagesColumbus was the first wave of Spanish exploration- also came further South into S. America, Mexico and California French early 1500s- St. Lawrence River and down to the Mississippi oSpanish discovered gold and silver in Mexico and the Caribbean Profit and piety (religion)- 2 main reasons why the English came to North AmericaoProfit: English lagging behind the Spanish, looking for a way to catch up John Cabot (1497)- Italian who sailed for the English crown; first voyage financed by the English crown oWent down the Atlantic Seaboard (Nova Scotia) -> down the Eastern coast of the USoDiscovered Greenland and New Finland oDied in a ship wreck in 1499- peril of traveling across the Atlantic was enough to keep other English investors from sending ships across the ocean; took the English a while to begin sending ships again Walter Raleigh (1552- 1618)- believed that England needed to establish a colony in North America becausethey were falling behind the Spanish oDevised a voyage: found funding and a location Roanoke colony- island that Raleigh believed would be a good place to establish a colony; off shore of North Carolinao1588- ~30 people sent to establish the colony to Lost colony- unsure of what happened to the colonists of Roanoke but they all died; probably tried to buildbuildings and grow food like they had in England and were unsuccessfuloWhen the supply ship returned the next year they found no one alive- believed some died of malaria, starvation and others taken by the Native AmericansCroatoan- inscription found when the supply ship returned to Roanoke; could be the name of the Native American tribe which came and conquered them, others say that it could be the name that the settlers renamed the island o
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