CLASS_36_2_4_2016.pdf - 1 Week 1 Lecture 2 January 7th Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh of Uruk \u00ad Fundamental Book within the Sumerian Educational System \u00ad

CLASS_36_2_4_2016.pdf - 1 Week 1 Lecture 2 January 7th Epic...

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1 Week 1 Lecture 2 January 7th Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh of Uruk ­ Fundamental Book within the Sumerian Educational System ­ Nature of kingship, adventure story with god's / heroes ­ Discuss what makes a good king. How the king should treat people and how people should treat king. How death cannot be escaped ­ Themes of friendship and death Fragment of 11th Cuneiform Tablet (“The Flood”) ­ Where the story comes from ­­ discovered in 19th C ­ Cuneiform refers to type of writing used ­ Story from the Old Testament from the Bible ­ Mesopotamia (land between the two rivers ­­ Tigris & Euphrates) ­ In this area, the first civilization began ­­ Complex, Large Entity with structures of government that structure society ­ Writing began around 3000 BC as well as trade as a way to keep records ­ History begins with writing. Before History there is Legend and then the historical period begins with writing ­ Sumerians bring writing, civilization, sense of empire, priesthoods, government, long distance trade, manufacturing, military buildups, expansion ­ Babylonian Empire follows the Sumerians and keep similar stories of gods just change the names ­ Except the Epic of Gilgamesh in education system and translate into Acadian ­ Assyrians follow as a strong empire with an absolute king Gilgamesh ­ 5th King after the Great Deluge ­ 12 Independent City States ­ Ziggurat of Uruk­­ Great Religious Center Storyline ­ Begins with a preface of King Gilgamesh; mother is a goddess (⅔ god, ⅓ man) ­ Anna: Sumerian gods of Love and War ­­ Ishtar ­ Council of Elders ­ Gilgamesh went on a journey that changed him and came back then wrote it all down ­ Council of Gods ­ An : Upper World, Ki : Mother Earth, Kur : Under World (how Sumerians saw it) ­ Religion Hierarchical ­ Anu : Grandfather god ­ Enlil : Prime Minister of the gods ­­ Primus Inter Pares (First among Equals). Not an absolute monarch (polytheistic: pertaining to many gods)
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2 ­ Sinn : Male god of the moon ­ Ishtar: Goddess of love and war ­ Shamash : God of Justice ­ Ereshkigal : Goddess of Underworld (NOT part of Council of Gods) ­ Ea : God of Wisdom, friend of men, god of sweet waters (sometimes son of Sinn and sometimes not) ­ Monotheism: God is all good, Evil is from weakness of humans or devil, God is not capable of evil but he can be stern ­ Polytheistic : gods source of good and evil. Therefore the council of gods can be capable of good evil as well as be very loving. ALL capable of evil ­ Nature of god's based on nature of elements ­ Nile river is calm, but Tigris and Euphrates can be rough and flood. Since the rivers are seen as gods they bring good things for a few years with good whether and then when it floods the gods are angry and bring destruction ­ Ex.) Wind can bring a calming feeling from heat but also can cause sand storms Epic of Gilgamesh ­ Gilgamesh is a wonderful administrator and warrior but lacks compassion for the common man or woman ­ Ninsun : Gilgamesh’s mother; lesser goddess ­ Not immortal and this presents an issue for him ­
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