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Anthropology 1001 test 1

Anthropology 1001 test 1 - Anthropology History of...

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Anthropology History of Evolutionary Thoughts August 27, 2009 o Karl von Linne (1707-1778) also known as Carolus Linaeus- was a creationist and an advocate of The Principle of the Fixity Species- species were immutable or unchangeable after their creation. o Jean Baptiste Lamark (1744-1829)- Theory of the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics 1) Organisms have “needs” in order to survive. 2) These “needs” are satisfied by modification of existing organs or with production of new organs. 3) Continual use of organs leads to an increase in their functional capacity; alternatively, lack of use of an organ leads to its degeneration and loss. 4) These changes that occur during ones’ lifetime become inheritable and can be passed on to one’s offspring. o Georges Cuvier (1769- 1837)- Theory of Catastrophism- In the past, there were a series of catastrophes that caused the extinction of species in the affected region. After the cataclysmic event subsided, species from neighboring regions repopulated the affected area. The immigrant species were similar in appearance to those that went extinct but not identical. o Charles Lyell (1797-1875) – Theory of Uniformitarianism: forces acting today to shape the Earth are the same as those that acted in the past. o Thomas Malthus (1766- 1834) – Essay on the Principle of Population [look at diagram in notes] o Charles Darwin (1809- 1882): Observations on Diversity on the Galapagos Island. o Alfred Russell Wallace (1823- 1913): also proposed that species change by natural selection o **Darwin- On the Origin of Species was published in 1859. 1) Reproductive potential of a population is high but actual population size remains stable. 2) Resources in the environment are in limited supply; so individuals in a population compete for the resources 3) Biological variation among individuals is normal in a population 4) Any hereditary variation that allows an organism even a slight advantage in completion for resources will be perpetuated. Those organisms with favorable traits will survive and produce more offspring. Over time, there will be an increase in the frequency of these favorable traits in the population. o **Principle of Genetics- Gregor Mendel (1822-1884): paper on his results was published in 1866. August 1, 2009 Principle of Segreegation- genes occur in pairs in an individual. In the production of sex cells the pair of genes is separated and each sex cell contains one of the pair of genes Gene- segment of DNA that codes for the production of a protein Allele- an alternative form of a gene (Round; Wrinkled) Genotype- the set of genes possessed by an individual (RR,ww,Rw) Phenotype- the physical characteristics of the organism (Round, wrinled) Homozygous- having two copies of the same allele (RR, ww)
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Heterozygous- having one copy each of different alleles (Rw) Dominant allele- expressed phenotypically in both the homozygote and heterozygote Recessive allele- expressed phenotypically only in the homozygote Principle of Independent Assortment- the segregation of one pair of genes does not influence the segregation of other pairs of genes
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Anthropology 1001 test 1 - Anthropology History of...

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