chap2 - William Stallings Computer Organization and...

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William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 2 Computer Evolution and Performance
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ENIAC – 1 st computer Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer Eckert and Mauchly University of  Pennsylvania Trajectory tables for weapons  Started 1943 Finished  1946 Too late for war effort Used until 1955
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Vacuum tubes – generation I ENIAC Decimal  (not binary) 20 accumulators of  10 digits Programmed  manually  by switches 18,000  vacuum tubes 30 tons 15,000 square feet 140 kW power consumption 5,000  additions  per second P12
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von Neumann/Turing Stored Program concept Main memory  storing programs and data –  1 st   ALU operating on  binary  data Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and  executing Input and output equipment operated by control unit Princeton  I nstitute for  A dvanced  S tudies    IAS Completed 1952
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Structure of von Neumann machine
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IAS - details 1000 x 40 bit  words Binary number 2 x 20 bit instructions Set of registers (storage in CPU) M emory  B uffer  R egister ( MBR, or MDR--Data ) Memory Address Register  ( MAR ) Instruction Register ( IR ) Program Counter ( PC ) Accumulator ( ACC ) Multiplier Quotient
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Structure of IAS - detail Main Memory Arithmetic and Logic Unit Program Control Unit Input Output Equipment MBR Arithmetic & Logic Circuits MQ Accumulator MAR Control Circuits IBR IR PC Address Instructions & Data Central Processing Unit
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Memory   CPU 1000 LDA 2000 1001 MPY 2001 1002 MPY 2002 1003 STA 2003 2000 2 2001 3.14 2002 6.5 2003 1001 PC IR AC ALU control unit MAR MBR 2001 r c=2 π r 6.28 MPY 2001 3.14 * data address I/O
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Commercial Computers 1947 - Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation UNIVAC  I (Universal Automatic Computer) US Bureau of  Census  1950 calculations Became part of Sperry-Rand Corporation Late 1950s - UNIVAC II Faster More memory
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IBM Punched-card processing equipment 1953 - the  701 IBM’s first stored program computer Scientific calculations 1955 - the 702 Business applications Lead to 700/7000 series
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NJU 103  from Soviet Union vacuum tubes 30  per second memory  4096 32 bits/word 1959 , first running computer in universities  one room in North building
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Transistors – generation II Replaced vacuum tubes
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chap2 - William Stallings Computer Organization and...

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