chap7 - William Stallings Computer Organization and...

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William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 7 Input/Output
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Wide variety of peripherals Screen, mouse, keyboard Printer Various disks Scanner Plotter   Modem, Network Interface Card (NIC) Sensor Actuator Camera, video camera M
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Typical I/O Data Rates
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Input/Output Problems Wide variety of peripherals Delivering  different  amounts of data At  different  speeds In  different  data formats (magnetic, optical, …) All slower than CPU and RAM Who controls various devices? Memory CPU Peripheral Peripheral need I/O module
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Need I/O modules   Memory CPU I/O module1 Peripheral Peripheral I/O module2
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Generic Model of I/O Module
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Input/Output Module Interface to CPU and Memory Interface to one or more peripherals About  name  of I/O modules: I/O interface (I/O controller, device controller-- detail control for microcomputer)  I/O channel, I/O processor for large computer  system
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External Devices (3 categories) Human readable ( character ) Screen, printer, keyboard  (suitable for communicate with user) Machine readable ( binary ) Disks, sensor (suitable for communicate with equipment) Communication ( with address ) Modem Network Interface Card (NIC) (suitable for communicate with remote device)
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External Device Block Diagram ) M M I/O module bus P198
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I/O Module Function Control & Timing: coordinate bus Interface  CPU Communication Device Communication Data Buffering Error Detection and status test keyboard P201 Peripheral I/O module I/O module screen CPU Memory
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I/O Module Diagram (general) CPU P204 M I/O M read
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& ' ±² , j ♥☛ ❛❻ . I/O module @ ! + . [email protected] + . Ł , j ( , disk j ‚“ * j * ).  j * (device driver) Ł / j “*
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I/O Steps CPU checks I/O module  device status   (gives out  its  address ) I/O module returns status If ready, CPU  request s data transfer  ( Read/Write ) I/O module gets data from device I/O module  transfer s data to CPU
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I/O Module Decisions Hide  or  reveal device properties to CPU Support multiple  or  single device Control device functions  or  leave for CPU Also O/S decisions e.g. Unix treats everything it can as a file
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Input Output Techniques Programmed CPU executes a program that starts I/O operation  and  wait s I/O operation to complete Interrupt driven   (CPU  ||  I/O module) I/O module  interrupt s CPU when it completes I/O  operation  Direct Memory Access (DMA) memory I/O module memory CPU       I/O module
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Three Techniques for Input of a Block of Data P206 Peripheral I/O module CPU Memory status buffer I/O memory
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Programmed I/O CPU has  direct control  over I/O Read/write commands Sensing status Transferring data CPU  waits  for I/O module to complete operation Wastes CPU time
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chap7 - William Stallings Computer Organization and...

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