LM11-1 - LM 11: Non-prokaryotic microbes and viruses...

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LM 11: Non-prokaryotic microbes and viruses Eukaryotic microbes are typically single-celled organisms, but the unicellular yeasts are closely related to and are studied along with multi-cellular molds and mushrooms Viruses are often studied as part of microbiology since they infect microbes and are important in the evolution of microbes via horizontal gene transmission and are often integrated into the microbial genome Viruses are not considered to be alive by many scientists 1
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Eukaryotic microbes Some features of eukaryotic microbes Some notes on classification schemes Some representative eukaryotic microbes 2
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Eukaryotic cell structures (Table 4.1) Distinguishing characteristics include increase in number and complexity of membrane delimited structures (organelles) Organelles derived from endosymbiotes Membrane enclosed nucleus commonly has many linear chromosomes in “duplicate” Duplicated gene structure and sexual reproduction allow rapid diversification of genetic material 3
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How eukaryotes move (Table 4.1; Fig. 4.18) Movement in eukaryotes is both intracellular and cellular Movement of cells is dependent on microtubules in cilia and flagella with similar (9 + 2) arrangement; the mechanism of movement and evolution of eukaryotic flagella is totally different from bacterial or archael flagella Movement of subcellular components is dependent on microtubules and microfilaments (shown below) 4
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Eukaryotic import mechanisms (Figs. 4.9) Eukaryotic cells import large particles and digest them internally in processes called endocytosis and phagocytosis Both require that the imported substance be bound to receptors to trigger the import Endocytosis is also used to recycle the CM Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that digest the ingested material 5
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Eukaryotic microbes: Protists (Table 23.1)
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LM11-1 - LM 11: Non-prokaryotic microbes and viruses...

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