LM15 - Antibiotics and clinical immunology • Selected...

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Unformatted text preview: Antibiotics and clinical immunology • Selected antibiotics • Anti-fungals • Anti-virals • Mechanisms of resistance • Monoclonal Antibody production, uses • ELISA 1 β-lactam antibiotics (Fig. 31.5) • The “cillins” all contain β- lactam structure that inhibit transpeptidase (are analogues of D-Ala-- D-Ala) • Different side chains confer different properties, ranges • Resistance often develops when β-lactamase (penicillinase) gene is acquired by pathogen • Cephalosporins, other antibiotics also have β- lactam structures 2 Vancomycin (Fig. 31.7) • Large (MW>1400) antibiotic effective against G-positive organisms (not orally bioavailable) • Binds to D-Ala-D-Ala residues and blocks transpeptidase as well as other steps in cell wall synthesis • Resistance due to changing final D-Ala to other AA or similar structure • VRE (vancomycin resistant Enterococcus ) is known to transfer resistance horizontally 3 Protein synthesis inhibitors (Figs. 31.8, 31.9) 4 • Aminoglycosides (top) contain cyclohexane (blue) and aminosugars (yellow) • Work by binding to 30S ribosomal subunit • Resistance widespread due to enzymatic modification of the antibiotic, mutations in ribosome targets • s contain 4- ring structures, bind to 30S ribosomal subunit to inhibit tRNA binding • Resistance due to many factors More protein synthesis inhibitors (Figs. 31.10, 31.11)More protein synthesis inhibitors (Figs....
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LM15 - Antibiotics and clinical immunology • Selected...

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