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Test 2 review - T est 2 review Comm 305 Theory of message...

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Test 2 review- Comm 305 Theory of message processing: Toulman’s Model 1. a. What are the two senses of the word “argument”?- (1) appears in sentences such as “they had an argument”, an interaction marked by over disagreement. (2) appears in sentences such as “he made an argument”, a claim and its supporting reasons. b. Is having an argument the same thing as making an argument? No, sometimes one can have an argument without making any arguments. Or people can be giving an argument but not be engaged in an argument. c. Explain the relationships among justification, correctness, and persuasiveness. A claim might be correct even if someone gave bad reasons for it or it could have good justifications and turns out to be false. An argument might be persuasive even if it is weak and could be well justified but might not be persuasive. Persuasiveness, justification and correctness are all independent of each other. 2. a. According to the Toulman model of arguments, what is a claim? First element of an argument, assertion advanced for the acceptance of others. Point to an argument b. What are grounds? specific information that is relied upon to support the claim c. What is a warrant? General statement that justifies or warrants using some specific grounds for some specific claim. Answer “how do you get from the grounds to the claim?”. d. What is backing? Statement that supports the grounds or the warrant. The point of backing as an element of arguments form is to understand that arguments exist in a chain. Because grounds or warrants ban be treated as a claim, arguments could go on forever. e. What is a rebuttal? Statements that identify possible exceptions in a warrant. Formula for identifying rebuttals: granting some grounds the claim will follow unless____. Not same as a counter argument. Ex: the price of oil will most likely increase soon unless____.
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f. What is a qualifier? A word or phrase that indicated the strength with which a claim is advanced. Ex: the price of oil will MOST LIKELY increase soon. 3. a. What is an argument prototype? Basic form/type of an argument b. Explain which part in the Toulman model distinguishes different argument types? Distinguishes between different sorts of arguments/prototypes by describing the sort of warrant that holds the argument together. c. Explain the different types of prototypes? (1) classification- warrant identifies some characteristic of a class or category and the argument involves classifying some given instance into that category. (2)Generalization- the warrant provides a generalization for a small set of inferences to a large set (3) Cause to effect- related to effect to cause, and the warrant in both will be some causal statement. Key difference is that in cause to effect reasoning is from some known cause to a hypothesized effect (4) effect to cause- reasoning from some known effect to a hypothesized cause (5) analogy- one reason from one instance from another arguing they are similar in some way (6) some reliable source invoked as the basis for the claim 4. The three standards for a good argument are?
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