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Unformatted text preview: Problem Set 1 Chapters 1-4 BILD1 / Winter 2010 Traver 1) Which four elements make up approximately 96% of living matter? A) carbon, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen B) carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, hydrogen C) oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium D) carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen E) carbon, oxygen, sulfur, calcium 2) What do these four elements have in common? A) They all have the same number of valence electrons. B) Each element exists in only one isotopic form. C) They are equal in electronegativity. D) They are elements produced only by living cells. E) They all have unpaired electrons in their valence shells. 3) The mass number of an element is the sum of the number of _________ in an atom of that element. A) protons and neutrons B) energy levels C) protons and electrons D) neutrons and electrons E) isotopes 4) The atomic number of neon is 10. Therefore, an atom of neon A) has 8 electrons in its outer electron shell. B) is inert. C) has an atomic mass of 10 daltons. D) only A and B are correct. E) A, B, and C are correct. Questions 5-7 Refer to Figure 1. Figure 1 5) Which drawing depicts the electron configuration of an atom of neon (
16 8 20 10 Ne) ? 6) Which drawing depicts the electron configuration of oxygen ( O) ? 7) Which drawing depicts an atom with a valence of 3? 8) The reactive properties or chemical behavior of an atom depend on the number of A) valence shells in the atom. B) orbitals found in the atom. C) electrons in each orbital of the atom. D) electrons in the outer valence shell in the atom. E) hybridized orbitals in the atom. Problem Set 1 Chapters 1-4 BILD1 / Winter 2010 Traver 9) What are the chemical properties of atoms whose valence shells are filled with electrons? A) They form ionic bonds in aqueous solutions. B) They form covalent bonds in aqueous solutions. C) They are stable and chemically unreactive or inert. D) They exhibit similar chemical behaviors. E) Both C and D are correct. 10) What is the valence of an atom with six electrons in its outer electron shell? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5 11) A covalent chemical bond is one in which A) electrons are removed from one atom and transferred to another atom so that the two atoms become oppositely charged. B) protons and neutrons are shared by two atoms so as to satisfy the requirements of both atoms. C) outer-shell electrons of two atoms are shared so as to satisfactorily fill the outer electron shells of both atoms. D) outer-shell electrons of one atom are transferred to the inner electron shells of another atom. E) inner-shell electrons of one atom are transferred to the outer electron shell of another atom. 12) When two atoms are equally electronegative, they will interact to form A) equal numbers of isotopes. B) ions. C) polar covalent bonds. D) nonpolar covalent bonds. E) ionic bonds. 13) Van der Waals interactions result when A) hybrid orbitals overlap. B) electrons are not symmetrically distributed in a molecule. C) molecules held by ionic bonds react with water. D) two polar covalent bonds react. E) a hydrogen atom loses an electron. 14) One liter of a solution with a pH of 2 has _____ hydrogen ions (H+) than 1 L of a solution with a pH of 6? A) 4 times more B) 400 times more C) 4000 times more D) 10,000 times more E) 100,000 times more 15) One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic acid is a weak acid that dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion (H+). Thus, If the pH of the blood drops, one would expect ______ A) a decrease in the concentration of H2CO3 and an increase in the concentration of HCO3-. B) the concentration of hydroxide ion (OH-) to increase. C) the concentration of bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) to increase. D) the HCO3- to act as a base and remove excess H+ with the formation of H2CO3. E) the HCO3- to act as an acid and remove excess H+ with the formation of H2CO3. Problem Set 1 Chapters 1-4 BILD1 / Winter 2010 Traver 16) Look at the six molecules (A-F) above. Answer the following questions: A. Which of the molecules are hydrophobic? B. Which of the molecules are hydrophilic? C. Which of the molecules are amphipathic? D. Circle the ATOMS that can serve as hydrogen donors in a hydrogen bond. E. Box the ATOMS that can serve as hydrogen acceptors in a hydrogen bond. F. Which of the molecules is a sugar? G. Is it an α sugar or a β sugar? (2 POINTS) H. Write it in its straight chain form. (2 POINTS) 17) What is a condensation reaction? (a) Draw an example of the use of a condensation reaction to form sucrose [hint: a (1,2) glycosidic linkage between α-glucose and β-fructose]. (b) What compounds are composed primarily of glucose? How do they differ from each other? What types of condensation reactions are involved? 18) Glucose comes in two forms – a straight chain form and a ring form. (a) Which form predominates in the cell? (b) There are two ring forms called α-glucose and β-glucose. How do these two forms differ from each other? (c) What polymer is formed from α-glucose and what polymer is formed from β-glucose? ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2010 for the course BIOLOGY 1 taught by Professor Traver during the Winter '10 term at UCSD.
- Winter '10