Game theory - Game theory is a branch of applied...

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Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that is often used in the context of economics. It studies strategic interactions between agents. In strategic games, agents choose strategies that will maximize their return, given the strategies the other agents choose. The essential feature is that it provides a formal modeling approach to social situations in which decision makers interact with other agents. Game theory extends the simpler optimization approach developed in neoclassical economics. The normal (or strategic form) game is usually represented by a matrix which shows the players, strategies, and payoffs (see the example to the right). More generally it can be represented by any function that associates a payoff for each player with every possible combination of actions. When a game is presented in normal form, it is presumed that each player acts simultaneously or, at least, without knowing the actions of the other. If players have some information about the choices of other players, the game is usually presented in extensive form. In game theory, the Nash equilibrium is a solution concept of a game involving two or more players, in which no player has anything to gain by changing only his or her own strategy unilaterally. If each player has chosen a strategy and no player can benefit by changing his or her strategy while the other players keep theirs unchanged, then the current set of strategy choices and the corresponding payoffs constitute a Nash equilibrium. Stated simply, A and B are in Nash equilibrium if A is making the best decision A can, taking
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Game theory - Game theory is a branch of applied...

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