10 - mitochondrial genetic codes differ from standard nuclear code • result of a single endsymbiotic event(1.5 2.2 billion years ago • closest

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Organelle DNAs -origin of organelles -mitochondrial DNA -chloroplast DNA Endosymbiotic origin of organelles
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Over evolutionary time, most of the bacterial genes were lost form organellar DNAs - some lost because their functions were provided by genes in host nuclear DNA - others were transferred to the host nucleus Mitochondria & Chloroplasts retain: - DNAs encoding proteins essential for organelle function - ribosomal RNA - tRNA Eukaryotic cells have multiple genetic systems: - nuclear system - organellar system(s) each has own DNA, ribosomes, tRNAs
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Mitochondria • contain multiple mtDNA molecules • mitochondria inherited cytoplasmically ! in mammals, maternally inherited mtDNA can be circular, linear, or other structures remain in mitochondrion
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Unformatted text preview: mitochondrial genetic codes differ from standard nuclear code • result of a single endsymbiotic event (1.5 - 2.2 billion years ago) • closest contemporary relatives are: • in Rickettsiaceae group • obligate intracellular parasites • ancestor of mitochondrion probably had an intracellular lifestyle… Mitochondria Chloroplasts • result of a more recent endosymbiotic event (1.2 - 1.5 billion years ago) • contain multiple chloroplast DNA molecules • DNA is inherited maternally (egg) • DNA can be circular, linear, or other • RNA transcripts & products of remain in chloroplast • uses standard genetic code • encode subunits of bacterial-like RNAP & express many genes from polycistronic operons like bacteria...
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2010 for the course BIMM bimm 100 taught by Professor Dr.sato during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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10 - mitochondrial genetic codes differ from standard nuclear code • result of a single endsymbiotic event(1.5 2.2 billion years ago • closest

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