LAB NOTES - L ab 1: Macromolecules Macromolecules: large...

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Lab 1: Macromolecules Macromolecules : large biological molecules—carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Carbohydrates : macromolecules, most of which contain only C, O, and H Simplest form is a monosaccharide (single sugar) C2H12O6 is glucose (product of photosynthesis and used to make ATP in cells) Other common monosaccharides include fructose , galactose , and ribose Disaccharides are double sugars Maltose = 2 glucose Lactose = glucose + galactose Sucrose = glucose + fructose Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharides linked together Starch is a polysaccharide made of glucose o Component of plants that stores glucose o Found in potatoes and root vegetables o Beans contain starch in the seeds Glycogen is how animals store glucose (same subunits as starch but different bonds) Cellulose is also made entirely of glucose subunits BUT it is a structural molecule o Designed not to be metabolized o Makes of cell walls of plants o Dietary fiber for animals; indigestible Hydrolysis : digestive enzymes break down polysaccharides Plants: store glucose in starch convert it to glucose use it to generate ATP Hydrolysis begins when seed takes up H20 and germinates Brewing beer: Barley germinates Starch-to-sugar conversion starts maltose forms mid-conversion process barley is dried (so hydrolysis and conversion stops) maltose sugar is extracted and used for brewing Malting : the process of germinating barley Chemical hydrolysis will be done in lab by heating the molecules with acid in the presence of water Benedict’s Reagent : general test for small sugars (mono and di) Mix with sugar solution and heat colored precipitate forms (yellow green orange or red) No sugar clear Sucrose no reaction Iodine Reagent (I2KI) Dark blue color indicates presence of starch Lipids are macromolecules that are insoluble in water Compounds that contain mostly carbon and hydrogen Fats and oils are used as storage molecules in plants and animals Animals: excess fat stored in adipose tissue, and later is metabolized to make ATP Plants: seeds store fats that are released during germination for the embryo Paper test : detects lipids in foods (rub oil on paper and hold it to a light) Proteins : 20 different amino acids combine in specific sequences with tight bonds
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The shape of the protein is key for selective binding Biuret Reagent : Starts out blue Reacts with proteins turns light violent/lavendar Macromolecules in food We metabolize food to release energy and make ATP We also break down food to use its subunits to make new macromolecule (like proteins) Butter is a mix of proteins, carbs, and lipids Emulsion : lipids occur in very small droplets dispersed throughout the water-soluble protein Clarification : lipid is separated from the water-soluble protein part o Often done for cooking
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LAB NOTES - L ab 1: Macromolecules Macromolecules: large...

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