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ns3410 quiz 4 study guide

ns3410 quiz 4 study guide - -11 Exocrine Glands of external...

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-11. Exocrine Ÿ Glands of external secretion Ÿ Secrete product onto body surfaces (skin) Ÿ Secrete product into body cavities Ÿ Secrete product into lumen (referring to the channel within a tu be such as a blood vessel or to the cavity within a hollow organ such as the nt st n i e i e ) of organ. Ÿ Examples: mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands A. Merocrine - Product contained in vesicles and secreted by exocytosis into duct - No part of gland is damaged or ruptured - Examples: pancreas, sweat, and salivary glands B. Holocrine - Products are secreted by rupture of gland - Examples: sebaceous glands C. Apocrine - A portion of plasma membrane buds off cell, containing secretion. This is then pinched off, producing membrane-bound vesicles in the lumen -Examples: lipid in mammary glands, cerumen (ear wax) 2. Endocrine Ÿ A gland that secretes a substance (hormone) for export (into bloodstream) A. Autocrine - Exert effects on the same cells that secrete them B. Paracrine - Chemical communication between cells within a tissue or organ C. Intracrine - Produced internally and/or has effects within the cell itself 3. Second Messengers Ÿ Intracellular mediator Ÿ In many ormon h e s ns t v e i i e ssst ms e the ssst m e ic hormone does not nt r e e the t r t a ge ll ce but n s bi d to a r ptor ece and indirectly ts affec the pro u t on d c i of another mol ul ec e within the cell, this us s diff e intracellularly to the target n nmms e z e or ntr llul r i ace a receptor to pro u d ce the r spons e e .
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4. Inhibitory G-Proteins Ÿ Inhibits adenylate cyclase and activates potassium channels Ÿ A guanine nucleotide-binding protein that lowers cellular levels of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate by inhibiting adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes its conversion from adenosine triphosphate. 5. Stimulatory G-Proteins Ÿ A G protein (heterotrimetric GTP-binding protein) that activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP in intracellular signaling pathways. Ÿ Symbolized G s . 6. Effector Enzymes Ÿ mainly prot ns ei , that t ll ca a ze ( i.e. , n r s t r t s i c ea e he a e of) m l che ica r t ons eac i Ÿ Example: Adenylate Cyclase 7. Adenylate Cyclase (Adenylyl Cyclase) Ÿ the enzyme that synthesizes cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cyclic AMP from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Ÿ Cyclic AMP functions as a " s on m ss n r ec d e e ge " to relay extracellular signals to intracellular effectors, particularly prot n ei ¨ n s i a e . Regulation of intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP is largely a result in controlling adenylyl cyclase. 8. CAMP ( Cyclic adenosine monophosphate ) Ÿ a s on m ss n r ec d e e ge important in many biological processes. cAMP is derived from nos n tr p osp t ade i e i h ha e (ATP) and used for intracellular s n l tr ns u t on ig a a d c i in many different organisms, conveying the p n nt p t w w c de
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ns3410 quiz 4 study guide - -11 Exocrine Glands of external...

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