Impact1s - The Great Dyings ! 1 ! " The BIOSPHERE:...

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1 The Great Dyings 2 The BIOSPHERE: Thin “layer” of life on the Earth # s surface Composed of ECOSYSTEMS T1:1a Topic Learning Goal
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3 A pond ecosystem 4 Earth System Science Lithosphere Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Which $ sphere # is missing?
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5 The biosphere has evolved…. . Ordovician ocean, around 450 Million years ago 6 Cretaceous ocean, around 130 Million years ago
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7 TOOLS OF THE TRADE: Stratigraphy & Biostratigraphy Biosphere composed of individual species that have evolved through time. Knowing this can help our understanding of the passage of time on Earth The passage of time is recorded in rock layers Study of the layers of rock (strata) = STRATIGRAPHY T1:2a 8 1. The principles of STRATIGRAPHY: Nicholas Steno (Late 1600 ! s) T1:4a
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9 The Grand Canyon, Arizona i. SUPERPOSITION In layered strata (sedimentary rocks or lava flows) “What # s on top is youngest” T1:2a 10 ii. ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY “If it # s tilted or folded is was originally flat” The “Lulworth Crumple” Dorset, England T1:2a
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11 2. CROSS CUTTING RELATIONSHIPS. James Hutton (Late 1700 ! s) T1:2a/4a Siccar Point Scotland A Cross cutting UNCONFORMITY - a period of non deposition or active erosion Vertical Sedimentary rocks containing marine fossils deposited in a DEEP OCEAN about 425 million years ago (Silurian Period) Tilted Sedimentary rocks originally deposited in a DESERT 345 million years ago (Devonian Period) T1:2a
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13 The “geological history” of Siccar Point, Scotland. 14 Basalt Dike, Grand Canyon Cross cutting NOTE: an unconformity is just one example of a cross-cutting relationship, others include……. T1:2a
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15 Cross cutting Inclusions of un-melted younger rock T1:2a 16 Faulted Rocks, Guatemala Cross cutting T1:2a
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17 3. Principle of faunal succession - William Smith (1799) T1:2a/4a fossils succeed each other vertically in a specific, reliable order that can be identified over wide horizontal distances As a result……… 18 • Strata of like age can be DATED and CORRELATED by the fossils they contain • Only works because species have changed through time… EVOLVED. T1:3a
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21 An Example from a scientific Paper: You do NOT have to learn this figure! T1:3a 22 What are the best fossil species for biostratigraphy? 1. SHORT range = higher RESOLUTION 2. Common 3. Lived in environments where fossilization is likely to occur 4. Present in many different environments T1:3b
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23 Ancient ocean floor covered with Jurassic Ammonites, University of Tubingen, Germany Example: Commonly used fossils in the Mesozoic - Ammonites 24 Subdividing time and correlating using fossils in this way = BIOSTRATIGRAPHY K/T P/Tr Late Ordovician Late Devonian Late Triassic EXTINCTION EVENTS * * We will return this later
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25 Lets talk Heresy!
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Impact1s - The Great Dyings ! 1 ! " The BIOSPHERE:...

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