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MAT_101_Summer08Lecture_2

MAT_101_Summer08Lecture_2 - CHAPTER 2 BONDING AND...

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CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES ISSUES TO ADDRESS... What promotes bonding? What types of bonds are there? What properties are inferred from bonding? 1
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BOHR ATOM Nucleus: Z = # protons orbital electrons: n = principal quantum number n=3 2 1 = 1 for hydrogen to 94 for plutonium N = # neutrons Atomic mass A Z + N Adapted from Fig. 2.1, Callister 6e. 2
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ELECTRON ENERGY STATES Electrons... have discrete energy states tend to occupy lowest available energy state. Increasing energy n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 1s 2s 3s 2p 3p 4s 4p 3d Adapted from Fig. 2.5, Callister 6e. 3
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STABLE ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS Stable electron configurations... have complete s and p subshells tend to be unreactive . Z Element Configuration 2 He 1s 2 10 Ne 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 18 Ar 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 36 Kr 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 Adapted from Table 2.2, Callister 6e. 4
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SURVEY OF ELEMENTS Most elements: Electron configuration not stable . Element Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon ... Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum ... Argon ... Krypton Atomic # 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 13 18 ... 36 Electron configuration 1s 1 1s 2 (stable) 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2 2s 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 ... 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 (stable) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1 ... 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 (stable) ... 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4 6 (stable) Adapted from Table 2.2, Callister 6e.
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