Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 The Varieties of Attention Attention...

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Chapter 4: The Varieties of Attention Attention regulates our sensory inputs and allows us to have coherent behavior. Selective Attention : * Stimuli – registration – perceptual analysis/early selection FILTER(it’s a sound/word etc) – Semantic analysis/late selection FILTER - Executive response - Early selection : attention can prevents early perceptual processing of irrelevant info * the participant does not see/hear the irrelevant info - Late selection : all information is perceived but irrelevant info is actively ignored ex. Stroop task Dichotic listening : two messages are presented at the same time, and the question regards only one message Cocktail party phenomenon : the ability to focus on one conversation when dozens more are going on Cherry studied this by using a shadowing task: exposing the subject to two messages (one in each ear), the participant shadows one of the messages by repeating it as it is heard. Selective looking: two videos are overlapped on the same screen * people could attend to either sequence quite easily *Illustrated by the Stroop task : a list of color names, each of which is printed in a color other than its name; due to overlearning of reading letters as they are; illustrates interference effect Also used to illustrate controlled (top-down) vs automatic (bottom up) processes Hypnosis on highly susceptible individuals did not show the stroop effect; showing that automatic processes can be controlled by hypnosis; bottom up can be influenced by top down factors. Most activated areas during stroop task: Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC): exerts a top-down bias that favors the selection of task relevant information Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC): detects conflicting responses from stroop test; can have multiple functions depending on the task Attention Capture and Inattentional Blindness Attention capture: the power of some stimuli to elicit a response even though we did not pay attention to it (ex. Someone calling your name) Inattentional blindness: failure to pay attention to events that we expect to notice (ex. Watching a tv game and failing to notice a gorilla walking into it) Faces are more recognized that other shapes Flanker task: effect of list length and congruency; congruency effect disappears as list gets
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2010 for the course PSYCH Psych 213 taught by Professor Jelenaristic during the Spring '10 term at McGill.

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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 The Varieties of Attention Attention...

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