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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5: Memory Traces and Memory Schema Theories of Memory Neissers reappearance hypothesis : memory is a re-experiencing of the past (memory was based on the recall of memory traces: replicas of previous experience) * Not true Schematic memory uses fragments to reconstruct memory. Analogy: reconstructing dinosaurs from bones, prone to error Memory ANALOGY: recording tape (some decay and wear and tear- Freuds analogy of Mystic writing pad- Analogy: new messages can be written on one level, while fragments of old messages accumulate on another level. - Perception is transitory we pass from one experience to the next (one layer to the next) = Many overlaps/ clump up, we can only make inferences about our memory, very prone to error. - *IMPERFECT analogy: schemas can be organized Flash bulb memories (Brown and Kulik): vivid, detailed memories of significant events - Experiment: 80 Harvard students to recall Kennedys death based on - 1) Place during news 2) What they were doing 3) Who informed them 4) How they felt 5) What they did after learning the news- Based on Now Print Theory : SCAN IMAGE!!!-- Focuses on the formation of flashbulb memory; we produce a faithful print if the event is emotionally significant and surprising; could be primitive memory- Memory is becoming less concrete and specific, and more abstract/general. (Away from memory traces and towards memory schema) Is there a flashbulb memory mechanism?- The 9 month apart accounts has inconsistencies that occur frequently with regular memory; uses inferences. - ( McCloskey) Flashbulb memories are not more accurate than regular memory (no need for special theory)- Refution: Nessier- Flashbulb memories are remembered because it links our own history and history.- Weavers experiment: roomie vs Bushs 1 st Iraq war: both events were recalled with approximately equal accuracy.- Result: Confidence/vividness comes from the realization we have witnessed a historical moment and wish to preserve in our memory a sense of having participated in it. - 9/11 :54 Duke students: questionnaire to get description of momentous event and ordinary event. Major variable consistency of accounts over 3 intervals.- Although flashbulb had more emotion associated with them, they were no accurate than ordinary memories. Are Memory Traces Permanent?- Classic approach consolidation theory : memory traces of an event are not fully formed immediately after an event, but take some time to be complete - Could experience retroactive interference : interrupted by events that occur after; ordinary mental exertion/memory formation detract ongoing process of consolidation Evidence: - 1) Woodworth: rest immediately after learning.. allows for full consolidation of the traces , while strenuous mental work at this time.. leaves the traces weak. - 2) Wixted: even if the intervening study material is not related to the original learning in any obvious way, the new learning draws on a limited pool of resources that may have...
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2010 for the course PSYCH Psych 213 taught by Professor Jelenaristic during the Spring '10 term at McGill.
- Spring '10