Chapter 6 - Chapter 6: Memory Systems T ulving and the...

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Chapter 6: Memory Systems Tulving and the Theory of Memory Systems Encoding specificity - Principle of encoding specificity : a cue is more likely to lead to recall of an object if it was initially encoded along with that item. - Items can be stored in different ways (bridge can refer to the structure or card game) - Participants were generating words in - NOT FINISHED Episodic and Semantic Memory - Episodic memory : storage/retrieval of personally experienced events (autobiographical event) Example: I remember that I have an appointment with a student at 930 tmr - Semantic memory : memory system concerned with knowledge of words, concepts and their relationships (not personally experienced episodes) Example: The chemical formula for table salt is NaCl Neuropsychological Evidence for the Independence of Episodic and Semantic Memory - Supported by the studies of brain injured people - (Klein, Loftus and Kihlstrom) studied WJ, who suffered retrograde amnesia (inability to recall events prior to the injury) = impaired episodic memory - Had general knowledge of classes, teacher/friends, but could not recall any personal experiences with them
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- Crovitz and Schiffman technique to evaluate retrograde amnesia patients: 24 picturable noun ex. Oven. 2) asked to recall an event related to the word/date it 3) retest over different intervals - Showed either: (Control group) Recency bias: tended to recall experience from the previous 12 months or (RA patients) primary bias : recall experiences that were in the distant past - As recover occurs, primary bias switches to recency bias - Test on personality trait showed little change (during/after RA), showing that there can be access to semantic memory w/o access to episodic memory * Scores were similar to before accident The Development of the Theory of Memory Systems : 5 memory systems: episodic memory, semantic memory, procedural memory, perceptual representation system and working memory Procedural memory - Tacit knowledge : knowing how to do something w/o being to explain what exactly that you know Ex. Maintaining balance on a bike - Explicit knowledge : when we are describing how tacit knowledge (semantic memory) - Semantic memory contains our explicit knowledge on how to ride a bike, procedural memory is what we actually use to ride a bike Episodic Memory and Autonoetic Consciousness In evolutional terms, procedural memory is the oldest system and episodic memory is the most recent. 1) Episodic ( Autonoetic: self-knowing ) : remembering personal experiences - includes ability to project into future; makes planning/goals possible
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- Prefrontal leucotomy: surgical procedure where the connections between the prefrontal lobe and other parts of the brain is severed showed that frontal lobe damage can diminish autonoetic consciousness; becomes uninterested in past/present/future problems that were so absorbing and incapacitating - (Tulving) Chronesthesia : subjective sense of time + autonetic (both dependent on the frontal lobe) = Critical role in evolution of human culture
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2010 for the course PSYCH Psych 213 taught by Professor Jelenaristic during the Spring '10 term at McGill.

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Chapter 6 - Chapter 6: Memory Systems T ulving and the...

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