Chapter 9 - Chapter 9: Language The Structure of Language-...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9: Language The Structure of Language- Wilhelm Wundt pioneered this field- Used tree diagrams : a description of a process that proceeds from one level at which a number of relationships are simultaneously present to other levels at which these relationships are serially ordered. ?????? T ransformational Grammar : - Chomsky is very important in the history of linguistics- Language : open-ended verbal communication that consists of all possible sentences- Speech : spoken sentences, is only a small subset of language - Grammar: set of rules used to generate sentences - Process of making a sentence grammatical is different from making it meaningful (grammar vs semantics)- Rejected the use of Finite state (to generate sentences in language): every word in a sentence is produced in a sequence starting with the first word and ending with the last word. Learning every possible sentence, for example the old man came, the men comes, the men came etc - Impossible to construct a finite state grammar that contains all the speech of a language - Only operated at one level (left to right). Chomsky proposed a top down process that uses phrase structure rules : rules consisting of symbols that can be rewritten as other symbols ex. S for sentence and N for car/girl/boy- Derivation= tree diagram = different strings =final sequence/terminal string - Grammatical transformations : rules operating on entire strings of symbols, converting them to new strings ex. B admired J becomes J was admired by B (passive transformation, example of optional transformation) - Kernel sentences = sentences produced w/o optional transformation (became outdated) Competence and Performance - Linguistic competence : internalized a system of rules that relates sound to meaning; command of language ex. Grammar - Linguistic performance : linguistic competence + cognitive factors such as memory and understanding of their situation- Observation of performance will not always accurately reflect competence ex. Kid/adult say the same thing in different ways Deep and Surface Structures- Linguistic competence has a innate internal structure aka universal grammar. - Deep and surface structure : sequence of words that make up a sentence constitutes a surface structure that is derived from an underlying deep structure * deep = meaning. Understanding a sentence = surface to deep, producing a sentence = deep to surface- Explains the existence of ambiguity The I nnate Hypothesis The Poverty of the Stimulus Argument - I nnate hypothesis : children innately possess a language acquisition device that comes equipped with principles of universal grammar - Poverty of the stimulus argument : the environment of the child is too deficient to allow the child to acquire language on that basis alone - Therefore they must have a Language Acquisition Device : that contains general principles that apply to any natural language ( universal grammar )- LAD knows about noun/verb/ subject/predicate arrangement etc...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/02/2010 for the course PSYCH Psych 213 taught by Professor Jelenaristic during the Spring '10 term at McGill.

Page1 / 10

Chapter 9 - Chapter 9: Language The Structure of Language-...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online