Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Imagery Memory and Imagery Paivios...

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Chapter 7: Imagery Memory and Imagery Paivio’s Dual-Coding Theory *scan in image - Imagery is defined as the ease with which something elicits a mental image (mental picture or sound) - Dual coding theory : theory that verbal and nonverbal systems are alternative ways of representing events *an event can be described or imagined (verbal vs nonverbal) - 1) Incoming info (verbal/nonverbal) 2) can be represented in verbal/nonverbal systems - Verbal systems are made up from logogens , it contains the information underlying our use of a word; operates serially *ex: when you listen to a sentence, words come one after the other - Nonverbal systems are made up from imagens , which contains information that generates mental images; a variety of related mental images can be generated from imagens (they operate synchronously: the parts they contain are simultaneously available for inspection) *ex: you can imagine a group of people, one person from the group, the face of that person, the nose of that person etc - Information in one system can give rise to a process in the other system: a verbal description can elicit an image of what is being described and an image can in turn elicit a description of what is being imagined - Words that easily elicit a mental image with tend to be concrete. - Concreteness : the degree to which a word refers to “concrete objects, persons, places, or things that can be heard, felt, smelled, or tasted”; the degree to which a word refers to something that can be experienced by the senses - High correlation between imagery and concreteness = Paivio argues that they are two aspects of the same process - Concepts such as pain/love are not concrete; they are also internal emotional sources of imagery Research Related to Dual-Coding Theory Experiment of recall with 4 pairings: both concrete, both abstract, abstract/concrete, concrete/abstract. Asked to recall based on 1 st word Results: Learning is best when both words are concrete and worst when both words are abstract. Concrete abstract > abstract concrete + concrete words were higher in imagery than the abstract ones.
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Explanation: concrete word is encoded by both systems whereas abstract words are only encoded by the verbal image (since its hard to elicit an image); could image a single image for the concrete pairings (penicil in coffe mug) Also used as a framework for understanding literacy Dual- Coding Theory and the Brain - Left hemisphere: controls speech and / verbal material in such tasks as perceptual recognition, episodic memory, and comprehension. (verbal) - Right hemisphere: nonverbal tasks such as face recognition and nonverbal sounds and spatial patterns (imagery) *both not supported - Lexical decision task : participants must indicate whether each stimulus is a word or not - Results: different abstract/concrete words elicited different patterns in the left hemisphere but the concrete words did not elicit more activity in the right hemisphere; the brain is a much more complex bilateral system
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Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Imagery Memory and Imagery Paivios...

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