Chapter 7: ImageryMemory and ImageryPaivio’s Dual-Coding Theory *scan in image -Imagery is defined as the ease with which something elicits a mental image (mental picture or sound) -Dual coding theory: theory that verbal and nonverbal systems are alternative ways of representing events*an event can be described or imagined (verbal vs nonverbal)-1) Incoming info (verbal/nonverbal) 2) can be represented in verbal/nonverbal systems -Verbal systems are made up from logogens, it contains the information underlying our use of a word; operates serially *ex: when you listen to a sentence, words come one after the other -Nonverbal systems are made up from imagens, which contains information that generates mental images; a variety of related mental images can be generated from imagens (they operate synchronously: the parts they contain are simultaneously available for inspection) *ex: you can imagine a group of people, one person from the group, the face of that person, the nose of that person etc -Information in one system can give rise to a process in the other system: a verbal description can elicit an image of what is being described and an image can in turn elicit a description of what is being imagined -Words that easily elicit a mental image with tend to be concrete. -Concreteness: the degree to which a word refers to “concrete objects, persons, places, or things that can be heard, felt, smelled, or tasted”; the degree to which a word refers to something that can be experienced by the senses -High correlation between imagery and concreteness = Paivio argues that they are two aspects of the same process -Concepts such as pain/love are not concrete; they are also internal emotional sources of imagery Research Related to Dual-Coding Theory Experiment of recall with 4 pairings: both concrete, both abstract, abstract/concrete, concrete/abstract. Asked to recall based on 1stword Results: Learning is best when both words are concrete and worst when both words are abstract. Concrete abstract > abstract concrete + concrete words were higher in imagery than the abstract ones.
Explanation: concrete word is encoded by both systems whereas abstract words are only encoded by the verbal image (since its hard to elicit an image); could image a single image for the concrete pairings (penicil in coffe mug) Also used as a framework for understanding literacy Dual- Coding Theory and the Brain -Left hemisphere: controls speech and /verbalmaterial in such tasks as perceptual recognition, episodic memory, and comprehension. (verbal)-Right hemisphere: nonverbaltasks such as face recognition and nonverbal sounds and spatial patterns (imagery) *both not supported-Lexical decision task: participants must indicate whether each stimulus is a word or not -Results: different abstract/concrete words elicited different patterns in the left hemisphere but the concrete words did notelicit more activity in the right hemisphere; the brain is a much more complex bilateral system Imagery and Mnemonics -Mnemonic: procedures used to aid memory -Method of loci