Chapter 10 - Chapter 10: Problem-Solving Insight Problems...

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Chapter 10: Problem-Solving Insight Problems and the Gestalt Theory of Thinking - Gestalt switch : a sudden change in the way info is organized - Insight problem : a problem that requires a restructuring of the way in which it is represented before to be solved (light bulb moments) Kohler and the Mentality of Apes - Insight: the ability to understand the way in which the parts of a situation are related to one another - Insight was all or none; it occurred spontaneously and suddenly Wertheimer and Productive Thinking - Productive thinking: thinking that occurs as a result of having a grasp of the general principles that apply in the particular situation in which you find yourself - Draw capsule thing/window thing her - A child is capable of seeing the relationships between the parts of the whole figure; superficial learning interferes with the ability to see what might be obvious to a more naïve person - Opposite of productive thinking is structurally blind thinking: the tendency to reproduce thinking appropriate for other situations, but not for the current situation; especially educated adults Duncker and Functional Fixedness - We tend to use past experience to solve our problems - Analysis of situation : determining what functions the objects in the situation have and how they can be used to solve the problem - Functional fixedness: being unable to see that a particular object could perform the function needed to solve a problem; also, the tendency for people to think about objects based on the function for which they were designed Maier and the Concept of Direction - Hint: it must be consistent/specific with the direction that the person is thinking - Gestalt view : once fixation is broken, the solution either appears whole in a flash or insight or is produced smoothly as one step leads to another.
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- An insightful experience can mask the hint that gave rise to it Insight is Involuntary - It appears suddenly, w/o warning - Feeling of warmth : getting warmer feel as they get closer to a solution - Feeling of knowing : the feeling a person might have that she/he would be able to solve a particular problem - For non insight problems, participants were able to predict fairly accurately which ones they could solve/ could not solve. For insight problems there was no such predictability - Metacognition: what you know about what you know – how accurately
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Chapter 10 - Chapter 10: Problem-Solving Insight Problems...

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