05_childhood - Lecture 5 Childhood *Basic Concepts *Young...

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Lecture 5 – Childhood *Basic Concepts *Young Child/ Toddler * * Childhood (Basic Concepts) *After 1 year, growth rate slows down & body changes occur e.g. 2-3 inches (height) and 5-6 lbs (weight) per year until adolescence. Rate is 1/2 to 1/3 that if infant up to 12 months *Decreased extracellular water and increased intracellular water. *Increased lean body mass (muscle) *Changes in body proportions (decreased head and increased torso and leg). Skeletal growth. *Development of self-feeding skills eg. Holding spoon, pincer grip, cup handling, chewing *Nutrient Needs *Energy: Total energy needs increase slightly with age until adolescence but energy needs per kg body weight actually declines e.g. *1-3 year old needs approx. 102 kcal/kg/day *4-6 year old needs approx. 90 kcal/kg/day *7-10 year old needs approx. 70 kcal/kg/day Determined by REE, rate of growth and activity *Protein: needs gradually decrease from _____________ at 1 year to _____________at 10 years. 1
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*Complementation impt. in strict veg. *Minerals: iron deficiency most common mineral deficiency in world. *If diet is limited then supplement of 10 mg/day may be indicated. * *Vitamins: Supplementation recommended only after careful evaluation of child’s food intake. * *Children Most at Nutritional Risk * *Foster care or inadeq. caregiver (abuse or neglect) or single parent or parental influences *Homeless children (100,000 in U.S at least 50% of which are younger than 6 years) * *Children with anorexia, poor eating habits or consume fad diets *Children with chronic disease (e.g. FTT) * Young Child/ Toddler * Common Parental Concerns *Child not eating enough *Child only eats a few foods and wants same ones again and again 2
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* *Milk consumption too much or too little Caregiver is responsible what child is offered, & where and when presented but child is responsible for how much is eaten. *Ensuring Nutritional Adequacy *Portion/ serving size impt. Rule of thumb is 1/4 to 1/3 adult portion size, or 1 Tbsp per year of age whichever works better * * *Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, peanut butter, cooked dried beans: 2 (1/2 oz) serv/ day. *Chewing and swallowing may be a problem. Limit hotdogs and lunch meats *Making food easy to eat: * *Soft and moist e.g creamed peas, very soft mashed potatoes * *Ground beef instead of roasts or steaks *Salads without dressing (finger food) *Drinkable or “spoonable” soups, smoothies, flavorings, cheese in cooking * *Appropriate Finger Foods *Dry cereal e.g. Cheerios, Kix *Banana slices * 3
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*Canned or well cooked vegetables * *Large curd cottage cheese *Small pieces tender meats
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05_childhood - Lecture 5 Childhood *Basic Concepts *Young...

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