Lecture 5 - Lecture 5 Childhood Basic Concepts Young Child/...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 5 Childhood Basic Concepts Young Child/ Toddler Preschool School-age Childhood (Basic Concepts) Growth & Development After 1 year, growth rate slows down & body changes occur e.g. 2-3 inches (height) and 5-6 lbs (weight) per year until adolescence. Rate is 1/2 to 1/3 that if infant up to 12 months Extracellular water and intracellular water Lean body mass (muscle) Changes in body proportions (decreased head and increased torso and leg). Skeletal growth Development of self-feeding skills e.g. holding spoon, pincer grip, cup handling, chewing Nutrient Needs Energy: Total energy needs increase slightly with age until adolescence but energy needs per kg body weight actually declines e.g. 1-3 year old needs approximately 102 kcal/kg/day 4-6 year old needs approximately 90 kcal/kg/day 7-10 year old needs approximately 70 kcal/kg/day Determined by REE, rate of growth and activity (REE= resting energy expenditure) Protein: needs gradually decrease from 1.3 g/kg at 1 year to 1.0 g/kg at 10 years. Complementation important in strict vegetarian Minerals: iron deficiency most common mineral deficiency in world If diet is limited then supplement of 10 mg/day may be indicated (DRI=7-10 mg/day) If have iron deficiency therapeutic dose of 3 mg/kg/day for 3 months (severe iron deficiency) Vitamins: Supplementation recommended only after careful evaluation of childs food intake. Red flags when restricted milk intake (calcium, riboflavin & vitamin B-12); limited fruit and vegetable intake (vitamins A & C) Children Most at Nutritional Risk Some ethnic groups Foster care or inadequate caregiver (abuse or neglect) or single parent or parental influences Homeless children (100,000 in US at least 50% of which are younger than 6 years) Children from deprived & low SES families (SES= socioeconomic status) Children with anorexia, poor eating habits or consume fad diets Children with chronic disease (e.g. FTT =failure to thrive ) Vegans Young Child/ Toddler Common Parental Concerns Child not eating enough Child only eats a few foods and wants same ones again and again Child dawdles/plays with food Milk consumption too much or too little *Ellen Satter: Caregiver is responsible what child is offered, & where and when presented but child is responsible for how much is eaten. < 6 months age 15-20% had juice, even though APA recommends no juice till at least 6 months 7-8 months of age, 46% had some kind of sweet dessert/beverage as part of diet 7-24 months of age, 17-33% had absolutely no fruit/vegetables 9-11 months of age, 1 of the 3 most often consumed vegetables was French fries 15-18 months of age, French fries are the most often consumed vegetable Ensuring Nutritional Adequacy Portion/serving size important rule of thumb is 1/4 to 1/3 adult portion size, or 1 Tbsp per year of age whichever works better...
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Lecture 5 - Lecture 5 Childhood Basic Concepts Young Child/...

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