ch2 part B - EEL 3801 EEL 3801 Computer Organization...

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Unformatted text preview: EEL 3801 EEL 3801 Computer Organization Computer Organization Spring 2010 Spring 2010 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Machine Instructions and Machine Instructions and Programs Programs Hamacher et al , Computer Organization Acknowledgment and appreciation for various slide materials from Dr. Philip Wilsey, Dr. Randy Katz, Dr. Philip Leong Memory Locations and Addresses s This lecture focuses on memory and addressing memory s In particular RAM (which is primary storage) s Main memory: consists of a large number of storage cells s Each cell can store a binary digit, called a bit (0 or 1) s These bits are usually grouped together into words (typically 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits) s The number of bits in a word is called word length s Then, accessed on a word basis - each word having a unique address Memory Locations and Addresses s Sometimes use bytes which are 8-bits in length, e.g., for characters s 1024=1K s 1024*1024=1M s 1024*1024*1024=1G s Typically refer to memory size in bytes, e.g., we say we have 128MB memory s We rarely use words as unit of memory capacity b even though that is how the processor usually accesses the data! Memory Addresses s Use addresses to store or retrieve a single item of information s For some k, memory consists of 2 k unique addresses which range from 0 - 2 k-1 s The possible addresses are the address space of the computer s e.g. 28-bit address has 2 28 (268435456) locations (normally we use words for addresses) Byte Addressability s Word typically varies 16-64 bits (the IA-32 architecture has 32-bit words which we will assume from now on) s Most machines address memory in units of bytes s Implies for a 32-bit machine, successive words are at address 0, 4, 8, 12 second word first word n bits last word i th word Integers and Characters (b) Four characters character character character character (a) A signed integer Sign bit: for positive numbers for negative numbers ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII 32 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits b 31 b 30 b 1 b b 31 = b 31 1 = more/less significant bytes...
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2010 for the course EEL 3801 taught by Professor Froosh during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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ch2 part B - EEL 3801 EEL 3801 Computer Organization...

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