lo_bandgap - Low Voltage, Low Power CMOS Bandgap References...

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Low Voltage, Low Power CMOS Bandgap References ECE 1352 – Reading Assignment University of Toronto Professor K. Phang Timothy Lo
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i Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction. .................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Background. ................................................................................................ 1 2.0 Low Voltage, Low Power Designs . ................................................................ 4 3.0 Future Issues. ............................................................................................... 15 References. ............................................................................................................. 16
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ii Table of Figures Figure 1: Brokaw (bipolar) bandgap reference circuit [1]. .......................................... 2 Figure 2: a) vertical npn transistor b) vertical pnp transistor [2]. ................................ 3 Figure 3: Typical CMOS bandgap reference [6] . ...................................................... 4 Figure 4: Low voltage BGR proposed by [7]. ............................................................ 5 Figure 5: Current summing BGR [8]. ........................................................................ 6 Figure 6: Voltage summing BGR [8]. ........................................................................ 7 Figure 7: a) V ref vs V dd b) V ref vs Temperature [8]. .................................................... 8 Figure 8: DTMOS cross-section [9] . ......................................................................... 9 Figure 9: Low Voltage DTMOS BGR [9]. .................................................................. 9 Figure 10: V ref vs. Temperature [9]. ........................................................................ 10 Figure 11: Circuit proposed by [10] . ....................................................................... 10 Figure 12: Experimental results from [10]. .............................................................. 11 Figure 13: Circuit proposed by [10] . ....................................................................... 12 Figure 14: Circuit proposed by [6] . ......................................................................... 12 Figure 15: Weak inversion PMOS opamp proposed in [12]. ................................... 14 Figure 16: NMOS opamp with level shifters [12] . ................................................... 14
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1 1.0 Introduction Many analog circuits require voltage references, such as A/D and D/A converters. A voltage reference must be, inherently, well-defined and insensitive to temperature, power supply and load variations. The resolution of an A/D or D/A converter is limited by the precision of its reference voltage over the circuit’s supply voltage and operating temperature ranges. The bandgap voltage reference is required to exhibit both high power supply rejection and low temperature coefficient, and is probably the most popular high performance voltage reference used in
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lo_bandgap - Low Voltage, Low Power CMOS Bandgap References...

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