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psy2_lec13_intelligence

psy2_lec13_intelligence - Intelligence Ability to learn...

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Intelligence Ability to learn, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
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General intelligence square6 Is intelligence one general characteristic? square6 Spearman’s “g factor” boxshadowdwn Intelligence as one general factor underlying all cognitive abilities boxshadowdwn Ability levels at different tasks tend to have positive correlations square6 General ability to solve novel problems? square6 The brain’s processing speed? boxshadowdwn Speed at simple problems correlates with skill at complex ones
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General intelligence square6 Spearman’s g factor in relation to specific abilities:
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General intelligence square6 First IQ tests tried to measure general intelligence boxshadowdwn Binet and Simon (early 1900s) square6 Are children performing as well as average for their age? square6 Designed to identify children who needed special help square6 Did not believe this measured inborn intelligence boxshadowdwn The “Intelligence Quotient” square6 IQ = mental age / chronological age boxshadowdwn A 9-year-old who performs as well as average 9-year-olds has an IQ = 9/9 = 100%
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General intelligence square6 Intelligence tests are designed to have a normal distribution boxshadowdwn This is “standardization”
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General intelligence square6 Reliability boxshadowdwn Test-retest: if you take it twice, do you get the same score? boxshadowdwn Split-half: does the score on even-numbered questions correlate with the score on odd- numbered questions? square6 Validity boxshadowdwn Content: does it test what it’s meant to? boxshadowdwn Predictive: does it relate to something else that it should predict?
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square6 Tests can be biased in ways the authors don’t realize, often based on cultural assumptions.
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