13 Lec 13 Fungi - I. Classification, morphology. . II....

13 Lec 13 Fungi
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I. Classification, morphology. . II. Fungi distribution in soil III. Survival and propagation IV. Important roles of fungi in soil 1. Organic matter degradation 2. Importance in soil foodwebs 3. Parasites and pathogens 4. production of mycotoxins 5. Mutualistic associations 5. Soil aggregation IV. Application of soil fungi 1. Fermentation 2. production of antibiotics 3. Biological control 4. Bioremediation Reading : Textbook: Sylvia et al., 2004. Chapter 6, pages 141-161. Soil Fungi Soil Fungi
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Fungi Bacteria Eukaryote Prokaryote Nuclear membrane No nuclear membrane Multiple chromosomes Single chromosome Mitochondria, organelles Few internal structures Polysaccharide-type wall (cellulose,  chitin) Peptidoglycan walls Two types of ribosomes (80S, 70S) 70S ribosomes only Multicellular and differentiated Usually unicellular Sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction Cells> 5 μ m in diameter Cells< 5 μ m in diameter Structural diversity Metabolic diversity From Coyne, Soil Microbiology Eukaryotes
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Heterotrophs Symbiont Parasite Saprotroph
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Hyphae Filaments: 3-10 μ m in
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Nature 356(2) 428-431, 1992 - 0.15 km 2 (37 acres) - 1500 years old - 8.9 km 2 (2,200 acres) - 2000-8650 years old 2003: Armillaria ostoyae , Oregon
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Single-cell yeasts Filamentous Fungi
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Fungal cell wall
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Eukaryotes Heterotrophs Almost all aerobic 80.000 species described but much more exist
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Fungal distribution Organism Biomass (kg per  hectare)
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